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Demonstration of immigration amnesty 2000.
History and Culture
Polish Traces in the Eternal City.
Every year the Easter holidays in Rome designate the start of the tourist season. With each passing day an increasing number of pilgrims and tourists to the Eternal City rods from all over the world. The Poles are a considerable percentage of the country and in exile communities, who either in organized groups, or individually come to the capital of Christianity.
Polish tourists and pilgrims coming to Rome very often do not notice the numerous Polish traces and mementos that have accumulated over the centuries. It can not be surprising, since the Eternal City offers such a great wealth of historical and cultural monuments that can not be all things to see and admire in a single, often very short stay. It is, however, on the occasion of visiting the main attractions of the capital of Italy, to see and stop for a moment over the evidence of the Polish presence. Is very difficult to mention all the memorabilia associated with the Polish and Poles located in Rome. Many of them are not available to the public. Let us see at least the ones that are on our journey from the capital of Christianity.
Many guides proposes to start exploring the city from Piazza Venezia, a central point. Nearby, somewhat in the shadow of its overwhelming vastness of the Altar of the Fatherland and the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, is a Polish church. Stanislaus. For centuries it fulfilled an important role in the lives of Poles in Italy, focusing Polish ĂŠmigrĂŠ life. On the facade of the church two eagles guarding the monument, dedicated to the worship of Saint. Stanislaus. The Latin inscription above the door indicates that we are the church of the Holy Redeemer and Stanislaus Bishop and Martyr, Polish Nationality Hospice. Inside we can see, among others images Smuglewicz F., S. Czechowicz, T. Konicz of Polish saints. Floors and walls are covered with numerous plaques or commemorative tombstones from the seventeenth to the twentieth century Here came the prayer, among others A. Mickiewicz, J. Slovak, Z. Krasinski, CK Norwid.
Less than a few hundred meters away is the church of OO. Il Gesu Jesuit, one of the most beautiful baroque churches of Rome. The second chapel from the entrance on the left, dedicated to St.. Andrew Bobola, martyr for the faith. Colosseo
In the chapel of Our Lady of the Way (Madonna della Strada) often prayed to St.. Stanislaus Kostka, and 300 years later, A. Mickiewicz. In the church of S. Andrea della Valle on Corso Vittorio Emanuele, which lies on the route from Piazza Venazia to the Vatican, in 1918 a young deacon, Maximilian Kolbe was ordained a priest.
Towards Corso Vittorio Emanuele in the direction of St. Peter’s Basilica. Peter, the way we pass the church of S. Pantaleo, in which the General House Piarist order. His archives have extensive collections of the history of Polish religious province, especially from the eighteenth century.
In St Peter’s Basilica. Peter’s, Christendom’s largest church, the accumulated wealth of monuments and monumentality of the buildings are dizzying. Despite this, we attempt to find traces of the great Polish interior of the temple. In the left aisle, just above the baptismal chapel, there is a gravestone of Maria Clementine Sobieski, granddaughter of John III Sobieski. She was the wife of James III Stuart, pretender to the English crown. In the same aisle, on the tomb of Pope Innocent XI, we find a bas-relief depicting the most important event of his pontificate; relief Vienna 1683 On the floor of the central nave stated length of the world’s largest churches, compared to the length of San Pietro. Among them is St. Mary’s Church in Gdansk. It is the final number to find that its length exceeds 100 meters!
In the basement of the Basilica, near the tomb of St. Peter between the chapels of various nationalities, there is a Polish chapel. Situated between the tombs of John XXIII and Paul VI, is dedicated to Our Lady of Czestochowa. In the main altar of the beautiful mosaic shows the icon of Jasna Gora. On the walls there are sculptures of Polish Saints: Hedwig, Adalbert, Bishop Stanislaw, Kazimierz, Andrzej Bobola, John of Kety, Stanislaus Kostka. After prior notification, it is possible to celebrate Mass.
Vatican Museums, one of the richest in the world, also have numerous polonica. The most famous is the image of J. Matejko „Sobieski at Vienna,” presented to Leo XIII on the 200th anniversary of the siege of Vienna. In the Gallery, a candelabra with frescoes on the ceiling represents the moment of handing the pope a picture by the Polish delegation. Also, the Vatican Library and Archives contain many valuable documents of Polish history and the Church in Poland.
Guided by the St. Mark’s Square. Peter’s to the Pantheon and the Trevi Fountain is worth to join the only surviving Gothic church in Rome, Santa Maria sopra Minerva, where there are such four tombstones Wall Poles. Near the church you can see the famous hotel „Minerva”, which stopped our famous countrymen: Z. Krasinski, Kraszewski, H. Sienkiewicz, H. Semiradzki, W. Anders. Slightly, then falls Casanatense Library, founded in 1698. It has a rich collection of manuscripts and rare prints of Polish. There is also a library, gift of Arthur Volyn, Secretary R. Traugutt. Among the library’s collections you can see the death mask of Adam Mickiewicz, and several books from the private collection of the poet T. Lenartowicz.
Across the busy Via del Corso is the Palazzo Odescalchi, where she lived in the years 1699-1702 the widow of John III Sobieski, Maria Kazimiera, along with his sons and his court. Queen Marysienka lead sumptuous life trying to learn and promote a culture by establishing the so-called. literary academy and theater. Often seen her in the church of St. Stanislaus, where he requested the masses. died at Vienna for Polish soldiers.
One of the main Polish religious monuments in the Eternal City is in the church of S. Andrea al Quirinale off Via XX Settembre. In the chapel on the left side of the main altar are the relics of St. complex. Stanislaus Kostka. Adjacent to the church building of the former novice OO. Jesuits, where he spent the last Polish Saint moments of living.
To „iron” points in the tour of Rome is St. Peter’s Basilica. John Lateran. On the eastern side of the Piazza di S. Giovanni, in the sixteenth-century building located in one of the most haunted by pilgrims in the Eternal City: Scala Santa („Holy Stairs”) Sancta Sanctorum chapel and „holy”. In the vestibule, before you start to climb on his knees after the „Holy Stairs”, note the two sculptures by Polish artist TO Sosnowskigo „Pius IX” and „from the Cross”.
If time permits, make sure you go to the catacombs of St. And St. Calixtus. Sebastian on the Via Appia Antica. This was carried to Rome by Saint captured. Peter the Apostle. In order for these to some of the most important monuments of early Christianity, the way we pass a small, inconspicuous church Domine Quo Vadis. It is here that the decision was made to write Sienkiewicz’s famous novel „Quo Vadis”.
In the church of S. Bartolomeo on the Tiber Island relics are kept. Adalbert. See some of the Basilica of S. Maria in Trastevere on the Tiber, the titular church of Polish cardinals: Hosius, and J. Wyszynski Glemp. On the hill overlooking the town of Monte Mario, is the Astronomical Observatory. Nicholas Copernicus and the Copernican museum, created in the 400 anniversary of the birth of the great Pole.
Near the Spanish Steps, please refer to the oldest cafes of Rome Caffe Greco on Via Condotti. Since its founding in 1760, became a favorite meeting place for the artistic community in Rome. Also visited many Poles are here: A. Mickiewicz, J. Slovak, Z. Krasinski, CK Norwid, Lenartowicz T., Kraszewski, J. Matejko, M. Konopnicka, H. Sienkiewicz, brothers Gerymscy, J. Styka, S. Przybyszewski , J. Kasprowicz, S. Zeromski, M. Dabrowska, and many, many others. The interior of the premises, which still maintains the tradition of literary and artistic cafes, fill a number of souvenirs, among which are also Polish portraits and drawings.
It is very difficult to present all evidence of the Polish presence in the Eternal City. There are really very much. It is worth the stay, even the shortest, to try to find some of them, to see and remember. They are after all part of our history and confirmation of the close links with the culture of our culture and the Christian Mediterranean. There are obvious evidence of cultural links of Polish-Italian.
Prepared by: Zenon Golba
Canaletto (1697-1768) – Venetian by birth, Varsovian of choice.
When in January 1767, Bernardo Bellotto Canaletto went in once with his son on a trip to St. Petersburg, did not foresee that it will become Warsaw to his expedition. The Polish capital, the whole country as I was then in full bloom economically and culturally. This was the beginning of the period of Enlightenment, which was to bring Polish culture lasting spiritual and intellectual values. In Warsaw, Canaletto was presented to King Stanislaw August Poniatowski, probably by another Italian, Marcello Bacciarelli, court painter. Canaletto had for the future is crucial. Whole atmosphere of the court, the holy king’s patronage, friendship Bacciarelli, and the possibility of good revenue prompted the master to remain in Poland.
When the Seven Years War in 1756 put out vigorous artistic life in Dresden, the capital Saxonii, Warsaw, which gradually fell in love, gave him a chance in life. Surrounded by the warmth and generous care of the king, Canaletto during his thirteen-year stay in Poland, about seventy-painted images. Well-educated king indulged in Italian culture, so Canaletto painted it numerous views of Rome in the eighteenth-century popular style Vedute prese da Lunghe. Among other works are the fantasies of Canaletto’s architectural, historical paintings Polish, and remarkable views of Warsaw twenty-six.
In later works, Canaletto odzwierciadliĹ souls from the time when Warsaw became one of the most beautiful cities in northern Europe. For the Poles, his canvases are a documentary value and are considered treasures of information for historians of architecture, customs, traditions and urban planning. Canaletto paintings convincingly show the distribution of a beautiful Polish capital. Grab the viewer’s incredible fidelity and precision drawings, mastery of perspective and understanding of the style of architecture in all its dimensions. The genius of the artist presented the full force of the streets of Warsaw showing in detail the colorful characters of its citizens of all states. Among the paintings we see an elegant tour company on the Vistula River with the orchestra, young noblemen zaprawiajÄ cych in horseback riding, market scene in the old city, Jews were talking in the street, a woman kneeling in prayer before the church, a group of city dwellers, the boys with the horses and well-dressed nobles in carriages .
Canaletto captured the image of Warsaw in one of the turning points of history from the period of great social change, many new ideas and strong influences from the lands of western Europe, among others, Italy, which completely transformed into all aspects of life. In his panoramic paintings, Canaletto Warsaw presented a dynamic, vibrant and full of contrasts. His most famous works of art include: „General View of Warsaw from Prague”, „View from the Palace Ostrogski Warsaw Royal Castle” and „View Baths”.
The Canaletto paintings, you can play the amazing transformation of Warsaw from that period. Artist managed to capture a significant change to date, and so present character of the city under development. None of the great buildings were not painted in isolation, they were fully represented in the surrounding buildings, squares, open spaces, and the lively crowds of people hurrying to the Capital, or me leaving. The scenes always transmit traffic and bustle of life in that period and beyond its hem.
Canaletto was not the first artist who painted Warsaw, but none before that Venetian by birth and by choice not a Warsaw presented its beauty so well. No one caught in such a comprehensive way the look and spirit of the city early in the reign of King Stanislaw August, when the Warsaw faced with great changes in the modern metropolis.
Portrait of Warsaw by Canaletto allowed the reconstruction of Warsaw barbarously destroyed by the Germans in World War II. His works of art looted by the invaders were recovered thanks to the international circuitry. Now, they enrich the Polish museums, palaces and the Royal Castle.
Canaletto’s great work to this day is an inspiration to many. So it was with many major artists. They were Zygmunt Vogel, Marcin Zaleski, later followed in his footsteps Josef Gladysz, Josef Sejdlitz, and Alexander Lesser.
Canaletto and his job in May eternal place in Polish history and culture and chronicles of Warsaw. Canaletto left un-mark on the soul of its citizens. Canaletto’s triumphs give a beautiful and inspiring example of Polish and Italian weave of culture, which for centuries enriched and gave both countries yield not only in painting but also in literature, music, science, and art.
Prepared by: Zenon Golba, Translation: Zygmunt Bejnarowicz
Flame songs, 200 years national anthem.
It was July 1797. For two years, Poland has not existed on the political map of Europe. After the collapse of the Kosciuszko Insurrection Prussia, Austria and Russia zawłaszczyły remains free of the Polish lands. Purchased in Paris, patriotic circles associated emigration hopes for regaining independence with revolutionary France, and at her side forming a Polish forces armed. The driving force behind this idea was Joseph Wybicki, a participant of the Kosciuszko Uprising, activist and social reformer, author of the enlightened Constitution of May 3, 1791. He also summoned to Paris by General Henryk Dabrowski, then one of the greatest Polish commanders. After enduring surgery manages to win the favor of the First Directorate (Government), and later Napoleon’s glowing triumphs of war in the Italian campaign. Under the leadership of Dabrowski’s Polish Legions formed as an armed force, posiłkują ca formed in areas received Austria, the Republic of the Lombard capital of Milan.
Legions Kosciuszko hastened former officers and Poles conscripted into the Austrian army, who fled from it, or surrendered to the French and the fish-out were the POW camps. Not a few also had volunteers from abroad and the country.
Degrees, and the command language was Polish uniforms. In the uniformed soldiers had bows in the colors of the French and Lombard, and the epaulettes inscription in Italian: Liberi sono Uomini Gli Fratelli (free men are brothers). This was the first National Army based on the principles of republican-democratic, cut-off from the prejudices of society. In July of 1797 years Wybicki moves to Italy, where he finds Dabrowski in the town of Reggio Emilia. Finds legions of Napoleon’s bitter tactical truce with Austria. Dreams of the imminent march north, towards the Polish, they begin to fade. In the ranks of the army sneaks into doubt. And then Wybicki sits in one night he writes a song that has the affix wings, homeless men, breathe in them new courage to return to their homeland. With the general applause Wybicki chanted her song at a meeting of elders legion, and now July 20 performs her first military band on the market at Reggio in the rhythm of the melody Polish mazurka surely, but of unknown authorship. Content of the mazurka was a faithful reflection of the contemporary moods and situations, a frontier era, like this, which became the Marseillaise earlier.
The first words of the song: „Poland has not perished, when we live …”- meant as Adam Mickiewicz says that” the Polish idea of ââthe homeland is not connected with the earth „that” people are behaving in itself what constitutes the essence of Polish nationality , are able to prolong life regardless of their homeland and political conditions may seek to restore it. ” Chorus: „March, march, Dabrowski, from Italy to Polish, for your cable zĹÄ czym the nation” – gave brief yearning for Legionella, as well as the next stanza ended Napoleon’s nod and an expression of faith in his military genius („Cross the Vistula, it will go Warta, we shall Poles, Bonaparte gave us an example of how we win „).
Legion is distinguished themselves creditably in the fighting on the Apennine Peninsula, winning the Rome and Naples. Danube Legion under the command of General Charles Kniaziewicz instrumental contributed to the victory of Hohenlinden. Later, however, venture rozkruszyĹo legion, unfortunately, in the modes of the Napoleonic epic. The work of Dabrowski ultimately undercut treaties with Austria, France and Russia. Bonaparte’s legions gradually annihilated as a political factor. A significant part of the infantry was sent to suppress an uprising in Santo Domingo (Haiti), where almost completely disappeared.
In the long run, however, the effort legion – though not brought the liberation of Polish – has not been entirely lost. Legions of „Italian” has shown strength in the eyes of Europe, Polish patriotism, providing that the Poles did not intend to accept the Partition violence. Have also become a school of democracy in the spirit of the French Revolution and disputes have developed a host of officers and soldiers, as they scrolled through it with the top 20 thousand people. Some of them participated in the later years in the formation of the Polish Army has already upgraded under the command of Napoleon as emperor.
In 1806 the words were greeted Mazurka in Poznan at the head of General Dabrowski former legionnaires. To the sounds of Mazurek intervened in 1809 to Krakow Prince Jozef Poniatowski. Mazurek also rang in Lithuania, zagrzewajÄ c Poles marching in the Grand Army to Moscow. Later he was sung at secret meetings of conspirators planning to continue the fight to regain his sword „what took us a stranger violence.” Burst into song as fighting on the battlefields of the November Postania (1830-1831). Through all the years of slavery Mazurek – although banned as a dangerous incitement to rebellion and national song, burn like fire awakening will to survive. I carried on like the wind through Europe, making his international career.
During the Spring of Nations paraphrased Austrian revolutionaries „Dombrowskichscher Marsch”, singing: „Noch nicht ist Oesterreich verloren”. Richard Wagner placed the melody Mazurka in his symphonic overture Fri „Polonia”. Mazurek also spread across almost Slavic. Under his influence created starting with the same songs in Ukrainian, Slovak, Croatian, Serbian, ĹuĹźycku, echoed in Tsarist Russia. Poles also sang it in the turmoil of World War I, after which finally managed to „knock out for independence.” It took 130 years, however, before Mazurek (in an updated version of the already somewhat) was promoted to the rank of the official national anthem.
Prepared by: Zenon Golba
January Uprising of 1863.
Aspect of international and Italian
Each subsequent generation of Poles is experiencing a dilemma in his own tradition of national battles for independence. This also applies to the January Uprising. Kingdom of Polish independence movement after the defeat of the November Uprising had a change of political systems in Europe between the then major powers. However, the current situation at this time on the European political scene did not authorize such calculations. Well Spring of Nations after the defeat of Europe found itself in the clutches of the so-called. 3 „black eagles”: Russia, Austria and Prussia. This covenant was intended to give resist the revolutionary movements in Central Europe. The outbreak of „Crimean War” (1854-56) again restores the hope that the Anglo-French coalition stands by the side of the Polish cause. Nothing came of it. We are indeed trying to create military units in the Balkans and Italy, but they were not supported by the governments of dim. of states. The Congress of Paris in 1856, does not move at all publicly Polish question.
But on the political scene of Europe on the agenda is still „lies” question of the unification of Italy and Germany, affecting indirectly to keep themselves alive calculations and plans for the independence camp on Polish soil. The year 1859 brings the expulsion of Austrians from Lombardy by Napoleon’s army and becoming independent iii Romania because of the actions of French diplomacy. These facts lead to the belief that French pressure can be effective in persuading Russia to grant greater freedoms Polish subjects. This faith confessed factions associated with the so-called camp. whites. A more radical wing of the libertarian movement – so-called. „Reds” and their hopes are associated with the movement of the Risorgimento, whose hero was Giusseppe Garibaldi, who led a handful of volunteers overthrew the Bourbon rule in Sicily and Naples. They believed that Garibaldi will continue to struggle with the Habsburgs, arguing against them Venice, Tyrol, Hungary, and probably the Poles. In summer 1860, Garibaldi founded the Legion International, headed by Louis MierosĹawskim. „Red” General began distribution in the country proclamations calling for contributions for the purchase of arms, promising them that the fire of war also embrace and Poland. Dozens of volunteers from different parts of the Polish were slower to Italy, to the Legion. However, the elimination of the political game in Italii Garibaldi by Cavour (late autumn 1860) the trend slowed down the war in Italy.
Renewal of the covenant of the three partitioning powers at the congress in Warsaw (paĹşdz. 1860) to agree on the political line of Italian, however, does not lead to any concrete decisions. The very fact of holding a congress in Warsaw, provoked incidents antyzaborowym street character. Meanwhile strengthened organizationally „red” mainstream libertarian movement leader sees the emergence of Louis MierosĹawski who support using government subsidies and Garibaldi (Italian), assumed a military school in Genoa for the Polish youth. But soon comes to disputes between L. MierosĹawskim and cadets and „red” General ceases to be a commander of the school. Meanwhile, the country put the wheel on the card wielkoziemiaĹskie French, which was a mistake, because in the years 1861-1862 is ongoing diplomatic co-operation of Russia and France.
Another blow – it’s close military school in Genoa by the government in Torino, under pressure from the Russians. One of the objectives of the organizers was to prepare the future creation of modern weapons purchases in the West. It was felt that the collection of large sums of money settle this matter. However, the influx of weapons from the West to the Polish encountered obstacles, which were not taken into account. As you know, explosion of the January Uprising took place in a very inconvenient situation, because no war preparations were completed, the country has arrived from the west shipments of weapons. There was no time to rip all projects military-political nature, organizational and training. The peasants also were not prepared for mass participation in the uprising, as the two decrees concerning the enfranchisement, were published too late, because only a few days before the outbreak of the Uprising. Europe’s response to the January Uprising is indifference or hostility. The first enunciations of France – quite negative. Second Empire is not intended to encourage movement in Poland of a revolutionary. However, the signing in St. Petersburg dn. February 8, 1863, the so-called. Alvensleben convention providing for the granting of mutual assistance by the Prussian and Russian armies against the Polish insurgents dotknÄĹoParyĹź so much that he joined the Polish playing cards on your own. so called The plan foresaw Napoleon III, among other Polish reconstruction under the aegis of the Habsburgs, Venice-Italy reimbursement, etc. The basic condition for the realization of this plan was to maintain the uprising alive as long as possible. The governments in London and Vienna to the ideas of Napoleon III responded evasively. They were ready to support the Polish issue diplomatically, but without resorting to war.
The most common Polish question aroused sympathy in Italy. Garibaldi himself engaged his authority in favor of the Poles. He believed that only the outbreak of European war may help the Poles, and Italians can be instrumental to this. In many Italian cities took place pro-Polish demonstrations took place in the Easter collection, newspaper articles he published favorable to the Poles. These expressions of sympathy – it had a moral significance, but in particular the political situation is not much they can help. Polish fate because he was dependent on the balance of power between the great powers of Europe. Only in 1918, this system proved to be favorable for the Polish cause and it is thanks to the United States, whose voice in the form of the Declaration of Wilson was heard on the international stage.
Cultural knowledge between the Italians and Polish.
Known and Unknown Truth
Knowledge, which alleviates a shame …
Poland again is an important ally of the West, a member of NATO, has thousands of troops in Iraq, after the acquisition with much fanfare from the Americans control room a big part of the country. This surprising turn of events for generations, the Polish army which is associated with oschĹym general in dark glasses, trzymajÄ cym in check this very sunny country, with the commander of Soviet tank production, spoglÄ dajÄ cym angrily from his turret, gnÄbiÄ cym own nation, and consequently us. It calculates the Warsaw Pact, which was once feared, and which today no one remembers with regret.
A bitter pill. How welcome this variety that makes znakomcie written book „For Your Freedom and Ours: The Kosciuszko Squadron: Forgotten Heroes of World War Two '(For Your Freedom and Ours, The Kosciuszko Squadron: Forgotten Heroes of World War II), feathers and Lynne Olson Stanley Cloud, shows how most of the time, recalls that the great English-Polish alliance of World War II.
The book is also a tribute to the 'forgotten heroes’, which says in the title – the brave participants in the Battle of Britain, conquerors of Monte Cassino, Warsaw insurgents as defending victims of Sparta and Realpolitik grim post-war period – and which we, their allies, we treated so despicably, but have done so much to save us. Reading the book, in which the UK is presented as a traitor and a coward, it can be appalling, but it is worth to swallow this bitter pill, because it is a fascinating story, well told. And if you move on to the year 2003, this conclusion proves to be less harsh than in the painful days of 1946.
The Battle of Britain Dywizon Kosciuszko (303) had in his account of German planes shot down the most, and competent officers of the RAF felt that it was this unit, along with other Polish squadron, probably ultimately tipped the scales of victory. 303 Squadron was a patron of the eighteenth-century Polish patriot, who worry about their nepodlegĹoĹÄ fought alongside American colonists against the British.
The memory of them zaispirowaĹa American airmen who participated as volunteers in the Polish-Soviet war in 1919-1920. It was then formed Kosciuszko Squadron, which significantly contributed to the Polish victory, he was also an important part of how dangerous, though woefully equipped lotictwa Polish in 1939.
The Poles did not have any ridiculous cavalry charge at tanks – are presented as Nazi propaganda, which believed the Western media – but they fought like lions, and their pilots shot down 126 German aircraft and did not come to terms with the inevitable defeat. Grabbing the various desperate ways, infiltrated into France (which did not give them any hope) and England (where he treated them with contempt), to re-ascend to the skies. At the end of the RAF he became convinced that they are excellent fliers, have valuable combat experience, phenomenal sight and every reason to seek revenge for the Luftwaffe.
Irritated them into English, frustrated regulations and throttle lever machines, which in contrast to the Polish had to push forward, not pull back, to increase the thrust. Englishmen endured with gritted teeth Polish impulsiveness, niestarannoĹÄ in dress and a tendency to move away from the array in the air, if the opportunity arose to precipitate the enemy. But with a serious intensification of fighting came to mutual understanding and the two merged web as a deep, strong bond, true brothers in arms.
As gallant Pole
The Poles attacked the Germans with such fury that some of the crew of German bombers, realizing that they are close to the Polish airmen, jumped on parachutes before their planes were hit. Later formations of American bombers demanded escorts Poles – so aggressive was their defense, and so attentive care. On the ground it did very impressed with your enthusiasm for fun and even legendary success with women. With its kisses and flowers in her hand, which showered the bride, were nice change compared to the rigid English – to the extent that a RAF pilot pretended Pole to increase your chances, and Martha Gellhorn American journalist, an authority in this area, ” devoted all his attention a few Polish pilots. ”
Squadron history certainly worth including in the annals of 1940, but in the book potrakowano it as an excuse to present a broader story about fighting Poland. The authors first trace the fate of the finest airmen five, and then the description of the history 150 000 Poles in the British army, in wiÄkzoĹci refugees from Russia who, after getting out of slavery have been trained in the Middle East.
They write about the Polish government in exile in London and the Home Army in Poland. It was the most effective and best-organized resistance movement in the countries under German occupation, although the absolute cruelty of the Germans. Poles Churchill made heartfelt promises. He knew their history, suffering and struggle for freedom. Roosevelt made lofty declarations, because they attached some importance to the American voting seven million voters of Polish descent, but really only cared about his personal relations with Stalin, which nourish false belief that is based on mutual understanding.
Increasingly deepened the dilemma of Great Britain, which, although it entered the war as an ally to guarantee the safety of Polish, but she was completely linked with America. This in turn had it all in the nose and no longer needed the British councils. The book is eloquently presented Churchill’s passion, when his honor was put to the test.
In the name of honor
From the twisted arrangements in Tehran in November 1943 after overt betrayal at Yalta Two years later, increasingly complex once paled promises and despair deepened Poles. Got to the point that General Anders asked that his II Corps was excluded from the composition of the British 8th Army, and the pilots began to question the meaning of sorties. They saw how the Warsaw uprising was doomed – Allied help was laughable, and Stalin held back his offensive and waited, pleased that, thanks to SS save a little missiles. Polish Parachute Brigade, who loudly demanded landing in Poland – the fact that it was created – were dropped over Arnhem, where he has been decimated. Despite this, Anders and his pilots continued to fight in the name of honor. But when the war ended, and so their wykpiono: Prime Minister Attlee government did not allow them to attend the Victory Parade, fearing that it could upset the Russians. Zostail treated as troublesome ballast, which forces the bankrupt British state to additional spending. Had not thought then that if not for the Poles in their fighters, if not for Polish cryptographers who broke the Enigma code, the Victory Parade odbieraĹby Hitler.
Of course, the authors of the book is biased, and wrote his book with a 50-year perspective. Today, Communism and the Red Army just as frightening kozmar forgotten. But at that time hung in the air, even the threat of terrible than the horrors of Nazism. Nobody could predict what will happen in Europe: Americans do not want it to remain, the British were penniless, and Stalin, which controls the powerful French Communist Party in France could lead to communism. A similar fate could meet Italy and Greece.
Heroic and romantic Poles suffered, as usually happens when feelings collide with politics. Their version of events deserves the widest possible dissemination, because – as in the case of the Holocaust – only the knowledge assimilated themselves by honest men as could help erase the shame, which remains the great historic wrongs inflicted.
When the Poles fell from the sky …
Operation „Market Garden” was a disaster and brought the Allies a significant military victory last Nazi Germany on the Western Front of World War II. Extremely ambitious plan failed because of British unwillingness to recognize the command of hard realities. Warnings as General Sosabowski as favorable to him, General Brian Urquhart is not convinced the ambitious General Browning. Not addressed by the leadership as a threat to the operation, two German SS divisions and stop the Allied advance but not reversed the course of this war – „Operation Market-Garden” remains one of the cards najwstydliwszych history of fighting the Allied armies occupying Nazi Europe. „Torn nation. Polish Parachute Brigade at the Battle of Arnhem „George F. CholewczyĹskiego is a colorful description of the battle of Arnhem, with particular emphasis on the participation of paratroopers brigade commanded by Gen. Sosabowski.
Author of „torn nation” lives in New Orleans, the origin is Polish and is passionate about military history. None of these circumstances was not without influence on the shape of the book that after thirteen years since the first American edition of the reader gets to the hands of Polish. „Torn nation” is not a historical work, but a book written for a wide range of readers. Readers a polished bit of American pop culture works, this book may bring associations with Hollywood images, such as Richard Attenborough’s famous painting of 1977 was dedicated to „Operation Market-Garden”: „A Bridge Too Far”, but also from more recent films like ” Saving Private Ryan „and” Black Hawk Down. ” But with this proviso that „Torn nation” is not enriched with fiction, there is no treatment or intentionally dramatize the facts. Despite the emotional involvement of the author (who is not ashamed of his Polish patriotism), the book is quite Cholewczynskiego reporter’s relationship with the dramatic events of September 1944. Apart from the details described an interesting battle, and not without humor, descriptions of the maneuvers in the monkey Grove and everyday life of Polish soldiers in Scotland, but we are also dealing with the next installment of complicated „Polish roads.” As we read in the preface to the book: „Rarely soldiers fought in such harsh conditions as the Poles during Operation Market-Garden. Built for return by the shortest route to Polish – landings to support the uprising against the German Army occupying power, the brigade was dropped into a hell of Arnhem. When the soldiers fought and died in Holland, supporting the Western Allies, the inhabitants of Warsaw in vain looked at the sky, waiting for his paratroopers. Meanwhile, on the other bank of the Vistula River, the Red Army was waiting the right moment to start his own Polish occupation. In contrast to the valiant soldiers of other Allied armies Poles had never seen their homeland, even after the final victory. ”
This is not all. Removed from command of Brigade General Sosabowski, accused of de facto failure of the operation, not only saw no homeland anymore, but the rest of his life remained in the shadow, stripped of glory due to him fighting. The fact that a prominent officer in order to survive in exile after the war had to work hard physically in the purchasing department of electrical equipment factory is a symbolic illustration of defeat suffered by Poland in World War II.
Taken the initiative of the Association headed by Sir Brian Urquhart, efforts to „restore the glory of” both the General Sosabowskiemu, and all the soldiers, whom he argued, led to the unveiling of the monument in the Dutch general Driel, where in September 1944 the Poles had to deal with SS armored units. The book is also a kind of CholewczyĹskiego monument to the forgotten heroes. Recommend it to particular young people, because it is their responsibility to preserve the memory of those who paid the ultimate price for it, so we can enjoy freedom today, and peace.
George F. Cholewczynski, „Torn nation. Polish Parachute Brigade at the Battle of Arnhem ”
Historical prices compare with reality
Wink is necessary, because the others were buck, another economy, another country. But let’s try to imagine Christmas 1972 It was the third year of Edward Gierek’s government, which Wladyslaw Gomulka after zgrzebnym brought Poland a little modernity. Suffice to say that with him appeared in Poland in the first deodorant spray Dorado. A year later, washing machine debuted in 1972 – Coca-Cola.
Assume that on the occasion of anything in the shops are not lacking. There were carp (30 zĹ per kg), oranges (40 zĹ per kg), butter export (75 zĹ per kg) and ham (90 zĹ, popular ham today, „As for Gierek” would probably take less if the cost as the Gierek .)
Christmas in 1972 was rather without a television, which was a luxury good. Black and white cost almost three average salaries, color, 58 inches giant screen – 58 thousand. zĹ.
In the refrigerator (6100 zĹ) cool as a white wine (the cheapest – 47 zĹ). At Christmas we rarely were placed such luxuries as a cassette deck (3440 zĹ) or folding bike (1900 zĹ).
It was – as a rule – much more expensive than now.
– The standard of living is much higher than for Edward Gierek, it is difficult to compare at all. Although it must be remembered that high food prices, which went most of the household budget were offset to some extent: the rent was low [approximately 3 zĹ per square meter], pĂłĹdarmo was water, central heating, energy. Were cheaper services [men’s haircut in Warsaw – 10 zĹ]. And there was a sense of scarcity, because everyone around you had more or less the same – said Waldemar Kuczynski, journalist and economist.
Well remember those times.
– Just in 1972 we got a flat – Kuczynski says. – Previously, we lived – I, my wife and child – in a small, two-room apartment in Ursus. Except that we had only one room, in the second, dziewiÄciometrowym, laborer lived with his wife and a growing number of children. And I, and his wife saved for housing, but construction went slowly, and there were no signs of success.
He helped my wife’s deceit, deception arising from absolute desperation. Well, they got our apartment next door neighbors with whom we were able to become acquainted. And we were in fear that this peace we dokwaterujÄ someone you might not be as nice. His wife, who worked as a journalist, called the Directorate RSW Press. She said that someone from her editorial is in terrible housing conditions. I helped secretary – recalled that the reserve pool of several apartments and just one is free. The next day already meldowaliĹmy.
Around the same time his wife got a voucher for a small Fiat. Ceded it to her friend, who got a voucher for a more luxurious Skoda. Talon – to remind the younger – it was a sort of entrance ticket to the store permission to go shopping, because there were more than willing to cars cars. Our little one cost 65 thousand. zĹ, putting off a long time for him, also took a loan.
The PRL almost everything had to be handled. – It was not like – even at the beginning of Gierek’s decade – that the entrance to the store and bought what wanted. Then all you had to do, abandon, get it. Rode to the other end of the city, as something rushed. Barter flourished – as in the store were the irons, it’s buying some, for exchange or sale – Kuczynski says.
So why this great fondness for Gierek? In a poll for „Gazeta” of 2004, 46 percent. respondents felt that the first secretary of Communist Party has done the most good for all post-war Polish leaders. Ahead of Lech Walesa and Aleksander Kwasniewski, Tadeusz Mazowiecki.
Kuczynski: – Poles Gierek era of good memories, but because it was a big jump compared with Gomulka. Supply has improved, wages went up, new goods. Contrast to the 60th year was bright
What could be purchased for ĹrdniÄ salary:Â
|Biscuits 100 g||
|Salt fingers 100 g.||
|Breslau wheat flour 1 kg||
|Pasta czterojajeczny 0.5 kg||
|Rice 1 kg||
|Pork meat (pork) 1 kg||
Meat of bovine animals, boneless 1 kg
|Chicken 1 kg||
|Vegetable butter 250 g||
|Butter export 1 kg||
|1 kg carp alive||
|Sardines (125g tin)||
|Milk bottle 1 l||
|Gouda cheese 1 kg||
|Fat cheese 1 kg||
|Sugar 1 kg||
|Chocolate 100 g||
|Tea 50 g||
|Super Coffee 100 g||
|Orient Coffee 100 g||
|1 kg Lemons||
|Oranges 1 kg||
|Bananas 1 kg||
|Raisins 1 kg||
|0.5 kg jar of jam||
|Apple juice 0,33 l||
|Salt 1 kg||
|Vinegar 0.5 l||
|Orangeade sniper 0.33 l||
|Coca Cola 0,25 l||
|Mineral water 0,33 l||
|Vodka 0,5 l pure||
|0.5 liter luxury vodka||
|0.75 Fruit Wine||
|Wine grape 0.75||
|Lager beer 0,5 l||
Apples, depending on the month
approximately 2 zĹ
|Towel 50 * 100||
|Carpet for 1 sq. m||
Men’s Wool Coats 1700 zĹ, women
|Men’s cotton socks||
|Wool two-piece men’s clothing||
|Men’s simple poplin||
Set of lingerie lace rayon
|Czechoslovakia imports shoes for men||
|Women’s Pumps Czechoslovakia imports||
Goatskin gloves, women’s
|60 Watt Bulb||
|Non-automatic washing machine||
|Fridge (capacity 100 – 125 liter)||
|Washing powder 0.5 kg||
|Automatic washing powder||
Washing machine Polar (appeared only in the 70s)
Headache powder (art)
|Vitamin C 50 units||
|Tataro-hop shampoo bottle||
Deodorant spray Dorado (the first year
|Flower Water Lily of the Valley 40 g||
|Zenith Pen 4||
|Gasoline etylina 78 (the so-called blue)||
|Motorcycle (capacity 125 cm)||
Source: GUS, 1972
We thank the Central Statistical Office for providing data
Over 40 years ago formed the Red Guitar
Klenczona know Polish, but really I met him in Chicago in 1978. He played at Chicago’s Astoria club until the end of his days. I never thought that such a famous figure is so open and honest communicative. Every weekend blasts were the same tune, and yet the Astoria club was besieged on all days. The conclusion is that not only attract well known and popular hits, but his personality above all. Dressed in attire reminiscent of Elvis Presley, in the heart and the voice from the stage song ,,…Natali …., .. kites of my sites … composed in Chicago and Red Guitar from the past. In Poland, the then-known figure as an artist was unavailable. I was on a visit to Chicago and to this day have been archived video-dedications Christopher Astoria club.
He died after a charity concert for orphans in Poland. Honor his memory.
And doing it and still does 40 years ago formed the band Red Guitar.
January 3, 1965 year in the cafe „Crystal” in Gdansk was set up band called Red Guitar. The first team were: Bernard Dornowski, Krzysztof Klenczon, Kossel George, George and Henry Zomerski Skrzypczyk. The inaugural concert was held on 15th January, in Elblag.
On the first album the band were four songs: „Because you are afraid of mice”, „Same as You”, „Count to a hundred” and „Teddy bears”.
They called themselves the „Red Guitar” – because that was the color of the guitar, on which they played. Episodes occurred in the team Seweryn Krajewski.
In April 1965 they recorded the first time for the Polish Radio, and in autumn they went in first tour under the motto „We play and sing the loudest in Poland.” In December, the band departed from Zomerski Henry, and his place was taken by Seweryn Krajewski.
In the first group of posters and photographs no figures and names Seweryn Krajewski and George Skrzypczyka because disclosure of the fact of their performances in the so-called. team a „big-Bit,” was at that time synonymous with the deletion of the two from a list of music school students.
At the end of 1966 in two days they recorded the first full length album „This is what we”, which reached its first print run number 160 thousand. copies. At that time, resigned from the cooperation with a group of her boss music – George Kossel. His duties were taken over by Krzysztof Klenczon.
Left four of them. Entered a period of greatest popularity Red Guitars. The next album were sold in record quantities. All were given the name „Golden plate”. In January, 1969 in Cannes, France, young musicians from the Coast were awarded the trophy „Midem” in the form of marble slabs, as a reward for the largest number of records sold in the country. Received the same award at the festival group The Beatles.
In 1970 he left the Red Guitar Chris Klenczon. Others toured mostly in the former USSR, former GDR and in the U.S., disappearing from the Polish stages for 14 years. At that time worked with: Dominik Kuta (Konrad), Richard and John Pospieszalskim Kaczmarekiem.
„In 1991 we returned to the national stage playing and singing for the next generation of Poles” – says George Skrzypczyk.
Spring of 1997 left the band Seweryn Krajewski. Musicians invited to co-guitarist Wojciech Hoffmann and vocalist-guitarist in one person – Mieczyslaw WÄ doĹowskiego. During the half year have done tremendous work. PA program and prepared material for the new album.
9 June 1998 year, the new line appeared at the Congress Hall. The concert was very well received by the Warsaw audience. In the summer they had to start a big tour, but suddenly, at the request of Seweryn Krajewski, the court held that without his consent colleagues can not use the name „Red Guitar”. This led to a partial suspension of the team. After three months the Court of Appeal rejected the request Krajewski, and a few months later, the Warsaw District Court ruled that the rights to the name remain with the existing group.
In 1999, after 24 years of recording their latest album, Red Guitars issued a new album, „… even the music play”, considered by fans as one of the best in the work of the team. In the same year they played 117 concerts in 2000 – 137 (most in history). In the poll, „Policy” voices of readers „Red Guitar” has been selected one of the best Polish teams of the twentieth century.
On the 40th anniversary of the group prepared a few surprises, and appeared in the composition: George and Henry Kossel Zomerski (founder and creator of the concept art), Jerzy Skrzypczyk (founder), Mieczyslaw Wadolowski (in the team since June 1997) and the musicians promoted by senior colleagues Marek Malinowski and Arkadiusz Kisielinski.
100 years and even more brilliant songs and musical studies.
Jews seeking refuge in the United States ended up … Auschwitz
It is one of the darkest pages in American history. And also jden of the most shameful scandals, compromising the Jewish community in the United States. On the eve of World War II, the ship „St.. Louis „, with almost one thousand Jews from the U.S. pokĹazie was sent back to Europe. Many passengers, fighting for his life, went to the Auschwitz concentration camp. Search takes a few survivors and their families. By the way, the question arises whether there will be responsible for this complicity in genocide.
8 o’clock in the evening, May 13, 1939. Steam powered ship „St.. Louis „leaves the port of Hamburg. On board are 936 passengers, the vast majority of wealthy Jews, mainly from Germany, although some also come from the Polish.
They have one last chance to escape from the Nazis announced ludobĂłjswem. Families with grandparents and infants. Single men. And unaccompanied children. Many paid the $ 500 per ticket – the sum of the times amazing. And even more for permission to descend to a foreign land. Destination is … Cuba.
In 14 days later, it turns out that the corrupt Cuban government retreated from earlier commitments. Refugees, from Havana, are returned back to the ship. „St.. Louis „is directed toward the nearby Florida. Passengers already see the lights of Miami. They are overjoyed. Leave behind the concentration camps and certain death at the hands of the Nazis. After all, America – a country of freedom and democracy take them for sure!
Meanwhile, Americans do not seem to consent to fasten the ship to shore. „St.. Louis „revolves around a Miami first, causing more and more nervous, and then open the Jews despair. Even worse, around the unit circle armed U.S. Coast Guard cutters. They prevent the ingress of passengers swam to shore.
Because the ship is sent to Washington, desperate telegrams pleading for help. In this – two personal appeals to the president. Frankin D. Roosevelt for not even answered. Despite the enormous political and economic wpĹwĂłw, American Jewish groups also ignore the problem. In the far end of the war threatened Europe. And with these concentration camps certainly an exaggeration. Beyond this there is nothing to mess with Adolf Hitler. Developed economies. Relies on a healthy patriotism. It has rules. He was even Man of the Year of the American magazine „Time”.
Seventh-June 1939, „St.. Louis „is forced to return to Europe. Britain and France agree to accept passengers. Their joy does not last long, however. Soon, the Nazi troops occupied Europe. Many passengers sent to the Auschwitz concentration camp.
Save a few … In almost 60 years later, the fate of passengers’ St. Louis’ interest in Sarah Ogilvie. It is not Jewish, but the matter has taken as a result of the experience of family. Well, her father worked in the camp, dealing with victims of Nazism and the migration of survivors. – At dinner we talked often about the Holocaust – says Sarah. When my father got a job in Washington in 1989, Ogilvie took a research program in the emerging Holocaust Museum. She was director of the Survivors Registry – agencies collecting information about the fate of European Jews during and after the war. Currently, the Bureau has data about 185.000 people and their families. Some passengers were coming in person. One week, Ogilvie took four such conversations.
Working often in his spare time, Sarah recreated the ship passenger list. Then she reached into all available sources of information. Advertisements appeared in the Israeli press. Launched a website. Verified record of the names in the Social Security system, lists of the dead, phone books across the country. Passengers were found in the most unusual places.
Hamburger Arthur was buried in Idaho. Hans Warschawsky refuge in Chile, where he took the name Juan. Kirchhausen Karl went to the American army and participated in the Korean War. Found Leon, Johanna and Guenther JoelĂłw – relatives of the famous American singer Billy Joel. By the way, they found relatives, having no idea about their existence.
Thanks Ogilivie is known is the fate of 935 of 937 passengers. From the 619 sent to France, Holland and Belgium, certainly more than 260 were sent to camps. The vast majority perished.
– These people do not disappear in the mist of history anonymously or in the heat of the crematoria – says Ruth Mandel, vice president of the Holocaust Museum, which went on board the „St.. Louis „as a baby. – Each of these individuals has a dramatic biography – in unusual circumstances survived or perished. Nistety, the fate of these testify about how they can be very cruel consequences of human activities.
This delicate allusion refers not only to the perpetrators. Many accuse the U.S. of failing to help desperate people. – I hope that through our project, the more force reaches the people understand the fact, how much can be disastrous decisions made by governments or even individuals – continued Mandel.
It is the indirect criticism of Washington and President Roosevelt. Families of some victims go much further in the prosecution guilty of soullessness. Ilse Marcus is 88 years old and lives in Washington Heights (New York). – The board came as a newly married to a married woman – says Scott Miller, deputy director of the Bureau. – Her husband and parents, returned along with the ship, were killed. Ilse managed to escape. But he never remarried. He is still upset by this tragedy and bitter attitude of people who could save her loved ones.
Herbert Karliner was 12 years old when he sailed 'St. Louis „. – I’ve always wanted to come to the U.S. – she recalls. – But we could not understand why a country as large as the United States refuses to accept 937 people at risk of extinction. At night, I saw lights of Miami. And I said to myself: „Once I get back here.”
Karliner, and his brother survived the war in France. Their parents and two sisters perished in Auschwitz. After the war, the brothers came to the U.S., where Herbert was a baker. He remembers how in 1980, the U.S. Coast Guard rescued 125.000 Cubans. – It hurts – he adds. – We were just after the 937th My parents and sister could survive after all …
– Almost everyone who survived and somehow got to the U.S., have achieved success here – says Miller. – Although it remained in the heart of emptiness and disappointment and a sense that they were deceived.
There were harrowing stories. Judith Koeppel infant was on board. Family finally landed in France. Judith I vaguely remember the parting with his parents, exported to Auschwitz. They gave her a stranger. – My father led her by the hand to the fence in an internment camp – explains Miller. – Then let her go. Then, she grabbed the child by the hand stranger.
It is this who hides a little and allowed her to survive the war. Along with other orphans, Koeppel immigrated to the U.S. then, at the age of 8.5 years. – No record or archive does not give these incredible dramatic events – says Miller.
Similarly, as Koeppel, at least 460 passengers finally landed in the U.S.. Among them was Ruth Mandel and her parents. They came from the UK. – My parents never forgot that they were turned back from here first – says Ruth. – Never, however, did not turn out. They were grateful to those who opened their door to America.
They are not fully known the fate of those who apparently died. From the recesses of human memory fragments emerge tragic fate. For example, his father, who with a 5-year-old daughter crossed the border on foot Switzerland. What happened to Walter Schuefftanem, born in the Bank (Poland), who in 1939 was 37 years? Also wanted are: Istvan Winkler (27), Ferdinand Ryndsionoski (23), Fritz Goldschmidt (32), Alfred Beifus (49), Heinrich Gabel (29), Hans Meyerstein (3), Joseph Singer (12). Do kiedykoliek we know their fate? And if ever the victims’ families will see the hollowness of at least the words of regret?
MINISTRY OF JUSTICE MAIN RESEARCH COMMISSION Nazi Crimes in Poland. CRIMES OF POLES MADE by the Nazis for aiding Jews.
According to the genocidal program of Nazi Germany, set out „General Plan East '/ Generalplen-Ost /, as also with the racist Nazi ideology – the Poles as” subhumans „/ Untermenechen / and Jews as the enemy race, had to be completely destroyed. As a result of such policies of the Third Reich and its criminal activities amounted to losses of biological Polish 6 028 0000 Polish citizens, including 2 700 000 – citizens of Jewish origin. Nazi crimes against peace, war crimes and crimes against humanity, committed on Polish society are enormous. One of the greatest tragedy inflicted by the Nazis in Poland during World War II, was the extermination of the Jews – Polish citizens.At the end of September – October 1939 the Third Reich occupied Polish territories were about 1 900 000 Polish Jews, and the lands zaburzaĹskich in the USSR – 1 170 000 Polish Jews managed to escape or emigrate abroad. On 21 September 1939. was undertaken by the central authorities of the Third Reich, the decision to concentrate Jews in the larger cities and organizing ghettos / called. JĂźdischewohnbezirke in occupied Polish. As a result of epidemics, hunger, terror and executions in the ghettos of mortality was very high. They were starved and murdered by Nazi Germany approximately 550 000 Polish Jews. Also the Nazi camps, especially the concentration extermination centers, have become since September 1939, the instrument of extermination of Poles and Jews. In the camps and extermination centers, located on Polish soil, Auschwitz-Birkenau, Majdanek, Stutthof, Gross-Rossen, Plaszow, Treblinka, Belzec, Sobibor and Chelmno, was murdered at a total 7.1 million prisoners – 6.7 million people, ie 95%, including the majority of prisoners – Polish and Jewish nations. Furthermore, in Hitler’s concentration camps located on Polish territory, the Nazis murdered at least 800 Soviet prisoners of war 000, about 22 600 prisoners in Italy, several thousand prisoners of the French, British and American. Almost total destruction of Polish Gypsies succumbed.
The aim of the so-called. „Final settlement” 11.3 million Jews living in Europe, was convened on 20 January 1942 in Berlin, Am Grossen Wennoee conference chaired by E. Heydrich, on which it was decided to include the extermination plan, not only Jews who were in occupied by the Third Reich European countries, but also in countries that were the „zone of German influence in Europe or were planned to the Nazi occupation, as, among others. England, Sweden and Switzerland. At the conference, this was considered obsolete all previous plans for a „territorial final solution” Jewish question in the form of a „Jewish reservation” between WisĹoka and San, or in the Lublin ghetto or too large to four million Jews to Madagascar, but adopted one form of: – their physical destruction. In total, perished at the hands of Nazi war criminals 2.7 million Polish Jews. In total 5.1 million European Jews murdered in Nazi concentration camps were killed – 3 million, 0.7 million in the ghettos, in the field by Einsetzgruppen, Wehrmacht, SS and police units – 1.4 million Jews. Among them, a symbol of human tragedy and heroism became a figure of Dr. Henry Goldschmidt – Janusz Korczak. He resigned from the possibility of transition in the ghetto or remain in place as a doctor and moved to the forefront of their wards and children – orphans, the transfer site to along with them perish in Treblinka.
To prevent the extermination of Jews, Poles, and for the price of risking their own lives were saved or przyczynjajÄ c to save about 100-120 thousand. Polish Jews. Help Poles for the Jews was spontaneous and organized, especially by the Council for Aid to Jews „Zegota”. The granting of this aid the Poles pĹacicili ultimate price – the price of his life. In Poland, in any case, the detection of assistance to the Jews the Nazis murdered Polish families, villages burned and destroyed and their inhabitants, old people, women and children. From direct action to help the Polish Jews were involved or were associated with it in the years 1939 – 1945 of about 3 million Poles. The basis of their attitude was the highest heroism and humanity.
Provide assistance and protection to the Jews, Poles – as he wrote in the poem „Polish Jews” poet, Wladyslaw Broniewski – were aware that „our common house was demolished and the blood of our brother, we share the execution wall, Dachau unites us, Auschwitz, each nameless grave, Each prison grating. ”
Tragedy of the Polish Jews were murdered by the Nazis, in Poland devoted many a study, a memory, a poem or song. The fate of the Jewish community, their martyrdom and struggle, are a part of Polish history, Polish martytologii, Polish and Polish resistance struggle against Nazi Germany. No wall was not able to dissociate from the ghettos of Polish society. The aim of the Nazi extermination of people was, after the Polish and Jewish origin, and the Polish and Jewish culture. This truth about the community understand the suffering and destruction of the Poles, regardless of their ideological or political beliefs in the name of this truth gave aid to Jews. This fact could not be anyone and can not be misunderstood nor ever deny the truth of it. Heroism demonstrated Polish Jews, who, as soldiers and officers took part in the September 1939 campaign in the ranks of the Polish Army. A few / several thousand Jewish soldiers and officers were killed and captured Hitler, most of them perished.
During the heroic uprising of the Jews in the Warsaw ghetto held from 15 April to 16 May 1943 were murdered and 56 were killed in battle 065 Jews, and the rest of approximately 42 000 people were deported to Nazi concentration camps. Uprising in the Warsaw ghetto, taken by the Jewish Fighting Organization in cooperation with the Jewish Military Union, was armed and heroic response to Polish Jews in the Nazi liquidation of the remaining final action alive more than 90-thousand of the population of the ghetto. Jewish Fighting Organization, headed by Mordechai Anielowicz, has set itself the objective of the struggle to defend life and honor Jews. Implementation of this goal tied the ZOB of national resistance movement, considering themselves as a link nationwide anti-Nazi front in Poland.
Particular significance has the fact that brutally destroyed by the Nazis, the Jewish population was armed resistance took on Polish territory. The armed resistance heroes – desperados was possible also thanks to the material, moral, political and military assistance from the Polish community by organizing the Polish underground forces of all political orientations. This was the first to the last hour battle for basic rights, human dignity and life, in which people were dying in the streets: Gesia, Dragon and Mila.
For the same case with the common enemy, they fought and died under the walls of the ghetto, rushing to his aid, Army soldiers and the People’s Guard.
On 16 May 1943 Ish SS General JĂźrgen Stroop could report Higher SS and Police Commander, General KrĂźgerowi: former Jewish quarter of Warsaw no longer exists. United shares was completed at 20.15. The Nazis did not, however, broke the spirit of resistance and failed to human dignity shaĹbiÄ inhabitants of the Warsaw ghetto. Do not have this also in the ghetto biaĹotockim, where an uprising from 16 to 26 May 1943., In Czestochowa ghetto, where Jews made a collective armed struggle against Nazi captors on 25 June 1943. in Bedzin – on 3 August 1943. in Treblinka on August 2, 1943 and Sobibor on 14 October 1943. These collective uprising and military actions have caused the liquidation of these death camps, but do not break the spirit of struggle and resistance of the Polish Jews, on the contrary – have strengthened their power struggle and resist. This force was expressed in the actions taken in other ghettos and camps, and share many of the Jews – fugitives from the ghettos in the Polish resistance movement and as well in the Polish and Soviet partisans. The struggle in the ghettos remained memory, written in golden letters in the annals of history. This will remain for all time and will be passed as the tradition of heroism and the struggle for freedom.
It is difficult to answer the question whether there was no salvation for the dying in the camps and ghettos of Jews? To find the answer, there must first be remembered that the plans of Hitler determined the same fate of Poles and Jews as, namely the destruction of biodiversity. That the Poles. Jews who have showed support, help pay for this with their lives. This situation did not exist in other countries occupied by the Third Reich in Europe. The Polish people dying alone and unaided. Even if he won at several times greater heroism, not able to defeat the enemy, and even more – to force him to resign from the „Final Solution of the Jewish question.” Theoretically, there was only one possibility: – opening a second front in Western Europe and thus accelerate the liberation of Europe. It is worth recalling Szmul Zygielbojm letter, a member of the National Council in London, addressed to the conscience of the world on 13 May 1943, before committing suicide in protest at the lack of response from the Western powers in tragic appeals for help and rescue endangered Jews: „Responsibility for the crime of murder of the whole Jewish nationality in Poland rests primarily with the perpetrators / … German /. The peoples and governments of allied countries to dziÄ not won on any concrete action to curb this crime. My comrades in the Warsaw Ghetto were killed with guns in hand, in the final heroic impulse. It was not given to me as they die, along with them. But I belong to them, to their mass graves. Death, I wish to express their profound protest against the inactivity with which the world has Eye Lens and lets exterminate the Jewish people. ”
According to the Jewish Historical Institute in Poland in the period from dnia13 September 1942 until 25 May 1944 on each individual case of detection of assistance to the Jews captured the lives of at least three thousand. The Poles. Thus, during the Nazi occupation in Poland – Pole and his family for sheltering and helping Jews faced only one punishment – death. For the nation and the fate of Polish Jewry – Polish citizens during the Nazi occupation are so integral a part of history and tragedy of the Polish state and the loss of Jewish population in Poland are an integral part of the overall Polish losses. The fate of the Jewish community – Polish citizens, as a part of history and tragedy of Polish society, not an abstract problem in the tragedy of European Jews. This tragedy affects all nations and countries in Europe, assaulted at occupied by the Third Reich, and all citizens regardless of nationality. In this connection it should be emphasized that all Poles lived under the constant threat of death and dragged through the whole period of World War II, the burden of aggressive war and the Third Reich’s murderous occupation of Nazi Germany.
The issue of Nazi crimes, perpetrated on the Polish Nation and Polish Jews, was reflected in the history of literature, art, monuments, museums martyrdom in Auschwitz – Birkenau, Majdanek, in Stutthef, Gross-Rosen, Ĺambinowice, the Pawiak, which is places were considered monuments of martyrdom of the Polish nation and other nations, including the Jewish people. In areas of former Nazi concentration camps, prisons, cemeteries, places of mass executions, the ghettos. posed are also monuments to commemorate the martyrdom of Poles and Polish Jews, and Jews – citizens of other countries who were murdered by the Nazis on Polish soil, among others in b. Szucha Avenue in Warsaw, at Belzec, Sobibor, Chelmno, Treblinka, SkarĹźysko – Stone, Plaszow. Radogoszcz in Palmiry k. Warsaw, Pirleju k. Radom, Bydgoszcz. In Auschwitz, the 27-s pavilion, in the so-called. „Jewish bloc”, a special exhibition was held Fri „Martyrdom and the struggle of the Jews in occupied Europe.” The Polish people each year gives tribute to the struggle and martyrdom, placing flowers on graves and monuments before martyrdom, constantly renewing the memory and the education of young generation with the planned and carried out Nazi Germany’s genocide against the Polish nation, including – for the Jewish community.
Poland is trying to also. that nations around the world, regardless of belief and religion knew what it was fascism, Nazism and anti-Semitism, and what a threat to humanity are all kinds of forms and wherever they are manifested. Overall, across Europe, has been punished so far about 50 000 Nazi war criminals, including the FRG only – 1 446 criminals, ie 7.7% compared to 86 400 suspects. The FRG is treated as a Nazi crimes ordinary crimes. and not as crimes against humanity. This position enabled the FRG to avoid a penalty almost all „desk criminals”, including the participants of the conference in Am Greessen Venetians on the „Final Solution of the Jewish question” as Georg Leibbrandt, left outside in Federal prosecution under the sentence of the District Court in Nuremberg – FĂźrth , dated. 10 August 1950., As Gerherd Klepfer – against whom prosecutors dropped the investigation in Ulm in 1962, as Otto Hofmann, who from 1951. lived in the wild in the FRG. Criminals Nazis treated leniently in the FRG, as well as the allegedly „unable” to plant in the dock or to serve a penalty, but act in the right-wing, revisionist and neo-Nazi groups. What’s more – prepares them lies such as „Auschwitz Luge” Manfred Roeder, are the organizers of the so-called. Hitler – Welle, promoted by Hitler as a second Napoleon in the history of mankind. To achieve their objectives of neo-Nazi and fascist nations prevent them know about the Nazi genocide, made by the Third Reich. Hence, the counterfeiters ever need a retouch, for which the attempt to gain the support of world opinion, namely that the Nazi crimes are a myth invented by the Communists, by Poles and Jews, because – in their opinion – the Nazi occupation the civil authorities and police guarded the only order in the Third Reich and the countries it occupied, and the concentration camps were the centers wilegiatury for prisoners in line with the slogan, „Work makes men free,” – „Arbeit macht frei”, which was placed by the Nazis at the gates of input to concentration camps. Proceeding from these erroneous and false assumptions, neo-Nazi circles in the FRG, as well as neo-fascist in some other countries of western Europe and America are making every effort to whitewash the SS and Wermacht and other Nazi formations, and to demonstrate, contrary to historical truth – that the Nuremberg verdict was just revenge winners over the vanquished, not the duration of the sentence just peace-loving peoples of the major Nazi war criminals. Echoed this neofaszystom such historians, such as the English historian David Irving, who at work Fri „Hitler’s War” / London 1977 / found that Hitler did not know he did not want and did not ordered the mass murder of Poles and Jews.
The study of Nazi crimes committed against Poles and Jews, the Polish citizens of all nationalities and prosecuting the perpetrators of these crimes is not and may not be reduced or limited in time. order to protect current and future generation from new dramas, before the turn of fascism and all movements and nationalist currents – racist. In Poland, never forget the time of the crime of contempt, and, under the rule of Nazi Germany in the Polish lands, and their plan of destruction and extermination of Poles and Jews.
In the Main Commission for Investigation of Nazi Crimes in Poland was developed by Vaclav Bielewskiego list of names of over three thousand. Poles who were murdered by the Nazis because they themselves or their relatives gave aid to Jews in hiding, and even for the fact that they knew that the Jews are hiding somewhere near, but not reported by the Nazi occupiers. There were cases of murder of entire families from infants to the elderly, in homes or farms where the Nazis revealed the fact that Jews were hiding.
The list is described – as far as possession of materials – the names of the victims – the Poles, their age, town murder, the dates of events and circumstances surrounding the murder of Poles. Some data are very brief, because – due to the passage of time – could not determine the names and even the names of those killed, although the mere fact of murder, is fully proved. 3.794 The list includes names of the victims, 49 victims of a transient population personaliach and several of specified villages. Total over 4, 000 (4000) people.
In developing the list of used materials contained in the Acts of the Main Commission for Investigation of Nazi Crimes in Poland / No Coll 23/68 /, consisting of 38 volumes, which contain two 086 minutes of hearings of witnesses, many hundreds of letters and other documents, including notices / posters / German occupation authorities, held in the archives of the Central Commission for Investigation of Nazi Crimes in Poland, and the National Bibloteki ZHP, the judgments of the Nazi occupation authorities located in the provincial archives in Rzeszow, Lodz, Radom, Piotrkow and Warsaw, as well as monographs and publications the process.
The list is not complete. It includes data disclosed during the proceedings on 31 December 1960 Main Commission is therefore asking you to send comments, additions, corrections, and any documentation allowing it to expand the list of previously undisclosed names of the victims.
Zenon Golba developed on the basis of materials prof. Dr. and Dr. Czeslaw Pilichowski. Waclaw Bielawski BZHwP Director of the Main Commission. Warsaw 1981
Answers to questions about Polish-Jewish relations.
The main point worth emphasizing is that the Solidarity government normalized relations with the Jewish community (improved era of communist ideological deformations of Auschwitz-Birkenau: previously it was thought that anti-fascists were killed there – not Jews) and the first recognized the need to continue the dialogue, which is important both for Poles and Jews as due to common history, traditions and interests. This is for the Solidarity Marcel Lozinski (director of the Kielce pogrom „Witnesses”) appeared as a Polish documentary filmmaker, his work previously roamed the shelves because of the communist censors. Took a lot of animosity from the communist era, when the Communists often exaggerate and cherished (case Moczar) Polish-Jewish conflict in order to „divide and rule. We must build bridges and promote a positive image of the long and rich traditions common – it is in the interest of both parties.
The tradition of dialogue should be maintained not only in Poland but also here in the United States. American Museum of the Holocaust should act as an appropriate, constructive forum to mute the emotions by means of education. There is a need to broaden the dialogue and enrich its content. It is obvious that the translation of guilt for the Holocaust with the Nazis on the local population or the Poles – which sometimes unfortunately suggest American mass media – is trivial, absurd and blatantly offensive. Especially that the Poles were „next in line” and also many of them died. It is important to create common ground and strengthen what is positive instead of causing unnecessary emotion by misrepresenting the facts. I think that Bartoszewski has done a lot, but it should have successors.
Poland is a special place for Jews – a place a long tradition and the homeland.
According to Adam Michnik, from the fall of communism, Poland has tackled the issue of minorities and may serve as an example the eastern neighbors. Besides some incidents here and there, anti-Semitism in Poland is a marginal issue, and it is pointless making a big issue with something that was almost completely eliminated.
Senator Bidden’a unfortunate remark recently denounced the Warsaw University, binding the Jewish issues of NATO enlargement was ill and tactless. Especially since the enlargement of NATO to stabilize the region and indirectly contribute to easing tensions and problems of ethnic differences. It is important to understand that the security of Central Europe neutralize extremism. This in a sense as much a European problem here should be better understood.
Of course we are patriots, but intolerance and fanatical nationalism has nothing to do with patriotism. They are simply not for us to accept.
We strive to engage the group scattered right hand side, expand the AWS coalition, dispel emotions that are often a source of pressure is associated with the changes, job loss, insecurity, etc. You have to be approached practically, stressing the need for tolerance and common sense, because without that threatens us fragmentation, extreme ideologies and political stupidity.
When it comes to Jewish property, I would like to stress that the Polish borders all the same law applies and it applies to all the dispossessed. Poland does not need new animosities, which could result in bending the law specifically for one group, as seen on the American example.
(Prepared by Zenon Golba based on materials from the Library of Congress)
INS – ARCHIVE
Winning years of struggle for immigrant section 245 (i)
Anti-immigration sentiment in the U.S. grew a long time. Significant burden of state budget through the misuse of allowances welfera, rang the alarm bells in California, Texas, Florida and Midwestern states. It is true that abuses are so-called participation. illegal immigrants. In California the first state in the U.S., children of illegal immigrants can not benefit from public schools. Latino families, which constitute the majority of Mexicans are very numerous. Not uncommon to view the family ten-dzietnej and more. Already in California, Latinos represent approximately 32% of the total population.
In September 1996 the U.S. Congress introduced a very strict immigration laws. Under the new law, any person staying in USA without a regulated status was given six months time to settle the necessary issues (eg, real estate sales, etc.) to April in the first version, and then September 1997. This time of year a lot, but not enough to legalize settlement. In a significant possibility of legalizing okrojono resident status. Practically limited to two categories: family relations and office work. The other category and rare belonged catechists and those qualifying for the H1B visa (those with higher education). However, all those who do not comply with the new law, will be deprived of the right of entry into the U.S. for 3 and 10 years remaining in the U.S. illegally. So very simply, you can put it.
In November 1996, the Organization of Italian-Polish-American OWPA information campaign launched consultation on the new immigration rules. With each meeting the number of people interested in wielokrotniaĹa. The many thousands of applicants gave a picture of the problems that await us interested and those who have taken this action to. In December 1996, just before Christmas Eve at the meeting welcoming banquet rooms „Biagio”, wished each other Merry Christmas and may the Christmas in 1997 were joyful. Multiple consultations with lawyers and members of Congress confirmed our belief that immigration law can not be changed. We will however put pressure on U.S. Senators and Congressmen to extend the existing section 245 (i) because it does not change the immigration laws, while allowing the legalization of those who have been legally performed and will perform in the future. There were those who succumbed to the illusion of the possibility of amnesty to the communications, but as time showed only a 245 (i) remained in the package of legislative discussions of the congress. It should be clear what is 245 (i). Now, Section 245 (i), allows persons seeking resident status (green card) to remain in the U.S. without having to go to their country of origin. With the benefit of 245 (i) could benefit those who have been zaaprbowane by immigration authorities. While the rest would have to leave the U.S. and their country of origin to wait for information from the American Embassy in the case of the non-section 245 (i).
Letters and petitions for an extension of 245 (i) have been distributed to senators and congressmen in the U.S.. By April, more than twenty thousand petitions signed by American citizens. We realized that the best form of stress is elector. The entire action of the petition have continued since July 1997 Which included petitions?
The way we presented the most clear picture of families, which particularly affect the extension of Section 245 (i). In repeated statements of politicians used the word family values ââwhen the non-renewal of section 245 (i) legally separated families. Could the so-called family. illegal had a different value? We argued also that the person applying for legalization by the employment office, they are needed for positions in the American economy. It’s not needed can be employed when the desired strength forced to leave the professional United States to their country of origin for an indefinite period (several years). And so absurd it was to look under the letter of the law. In the period from November 1996 have built a political lobby in Washington with Senators and Congressmen in the U.S., where our ethnic and numerical strength was significant. This task was not easy, because in many cases the correspondence was not enough. The direct meeting with the Senator or Congressman was a necessity. In July 1997 the U.S. Senate approved the first extension section 245 (i).
It was the first sign that the chances for an extension of Section 245 (i) are real. After the summer session of the congress decided that the meeting of Congress, in Washington is necessary, and much time is left. Staying in the USA without penalty 3 and 10 years to return to the U.S. ban elapsed on September 27, 1997, and Act 245 (i) introduced in 1994, ended September 30, 1997. On the ethnic Polish market was incredible confusion, since illegal is not believed that this indeed happens. Passwords for amnesty prolong hope. Polish-American media communicate different information, even though it was the right one. Gave one with the various councils including the trip to Polish. These were the offices of immigration matters, and it was hard not to give faith to those nawoĹywaniom. Organization of the Polish-Italian, in his own radio program aired every Sunday on AM 1240 wave from 11:30 AM to 1 PM in Chicago, urged not to leave. We knew that the Law 245 (i) is in the Package Appropriatios COMMISSION, and there are budgetary matters so important that it is impossible to ignore. The decision had to be taken. According to our sources in Washington knew that the 27th September this decision is not taken. Act 245 (i) has been extended to 23 th October. It was obvious that the chances increase. Pressure on Congress legislators wzmagaliĹmy repeatedly. We had also talks with a group of Latin. On one of the meetings of the organization decided that it was going to Washington to meet with Congress, and to demonstrate our presence and demands in the U.S. Congress. Program visit to Washington was prepared. Nearly two hundred members of a group of lawyers OWPA went to the 21st October to Washington DC. During this visit, there were two press conferences in the Rayburn House Building Congressional Office Building, meeting with Mr. Speaker Newt Gingrich Congress and members of Congress from other states. All this came out very well, because that day there was a debate about the 245 (i) and extended to November 7. Daily contacts with the U.S. Congress gave the picture of confidence in the committees and subcommittees that have to decide the fate of the immigration section 245 (i). Opponents of the extension of this section have made a project that do not deal with Section 245 (i). What does this mean in practice? After 11-07-97 no longer be possible to stay in the U.S. waiting for their status, and those seeking to remain in the U.S. that do not have applied to the right, stand on in the face of 3 and 10-year ban on entry into the United States. The vote on this project was held on the 29th of October at the request of Congressman Dana Rohrabacher of California. 268 votes for the continuation of the 245 (i) to 153 against. Opponents of the Act suffered a first defeat and it’s very important numerically. This did not mean that everything is already done.
In the recent reporting of the Congress, striving for a permit to stay in the U.S. for those who have already started the process of legalization. On Friday, November 7 decision has not been made. The committees of the Congress and congressmen worked on Saturday and Sunday and decided to extend it to 14 November. On Thursday late evening of November 13 we received information from Congress, that people who began their process of legalization, whether through family ties, or the department of labor may remain until the confirmation of the immigration office, regardless of waiting time. For those who want to start your process of legal stay in the U.S., may do so up to 14 th January 1998. This is the decision of Congress. In November 1996, not many believed that the action which they have taken has any chance of success. Many leaders of the organization condemned the loss of the thousands of so-called group of Poles. illegal. With persistence and faith in the success of his dopiÄliĹmy. Nobody gave it to us on a silver platter and asked, „Please take that, this is for you.” There is no doubt that the best solution would be amnesty. Not possible, however, it was in the balance of power in Congress. Most satisfied with the decision of the congress. A year ago nobody gave faith and hope of any compromise. We achieved a great deal to give the support of politicians, businesses, ethnic organizations and thousands of other nationalities of average people. Politicians from Illinois were under the greatest pressure, because our organization from all locations in the U.S. is strongest here. Words of praise and thanks to Senators C. Moseley Braun and R. Durbin and Congressmen R. Blagojevich, W. Lipinski, H. Hyde, B. Rush, J. Costello, S. Yates, L. Gutierrez. Enormous importance was the support of congressmen from other states in the USA, with whom we have established friendly contacts. The information that was conveyed OWPA reliable and fast. We got to many U.S. states serving the information and legal advice. In addition to the state of Illinois helped the Poles from Arizona, Colorado, South Carolina, Philadelphia, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, New Mexico, New York and Wisconsin.
The robustness of our organization in August convinced many.
Wzystkich For those who have not yet submitted your application for a visa, they can call us for information and legal consultation (773) area code phone 775-4400.
Zenon Golba, President
The common struggle for immigration amnesty with the unions!
In Illinois, collected 65.000 signatures for the legalization of stay for about 6 million. „Illegal” in the U.S. On Saturday, the union headquarters at 1450 W. Washington in Chicago was another regional headquarters of the American Convention is the largest trade union AFL-CIO serves gather opinions about the organization’s proposed general amnesty immigration for 6 million „illegal” in the United States. During this forum, immigration signaled a different environment called the greatest ills. undocumented immigrants. Meeting in Chicago is the third, when organized in New York and Atlanta. On Saturday, immigration forum takes place in Los Angeles.
At 10 am. Prior to entry – the piston. The vast majority of Hispanics. Some distribute union literature. The dollar buys „The Organizer” bimonthly from May-June, wearing combat subtitle: Building a lot of work and workers internationale. The first page of a great title: Amnesty for the undocumented, the law work for all workers! In the middle-revolutionary spirit. Titles: „Join the fight against global organized capitalism,” „Bring ye the death penalty”, „Organize support for the international revolutionary youth conference in Sao Paolo”, „Free Mumia Abu-Jabal! '(black Americans, awaiting execution for murdering a police officer). Socialist „Organizer” has offices in San Francisco, Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, St.Louis. „Solidarity price” magazine was set at $ 1.
Inside, a huge crowd. How do I learn from the organizers, confirmed the presence of more than 500 trade union activists – representing various professional groups, ethnic and social. The chairman’s table – including Linda Chavez-Thompson, executive deputy director of the AFL-CIO headquarters, and Don Turner, head of the Chicago Labor Council, a group of about 330 union organizations in Cook County, which owns Chicago. The unions themselves are turning to traditional – „Brother,” „sister”, which gives the character of the meeting of May first, and the mass rally at the same time.
We came here to learn about the most important problems and issues, which documented and undocumented live immigrants in the U.S. – introduces Linda Chavez-Thompson, an immigrant from Mexico. In the U.S. immigration system does not work and why you need to change it. Immigrants are the salt of the earth, regardless of whether they came to four hundred years ago as slaves, a hundred years ago through Ellis Island or in the last year straight to Chicago.
Chavez-Thompson recalls that in 1985 the American trade unions supported the punishment of immigrants for taking jobs „black”. Now the union position is completely changed. Too often it comes to cases of discrimination against foreigners, use them only wrong treatment because of it, or say that they look strange. Chavez-Thompson points out that in this situation should not punish immigrants, but preying on their employers. Notes that the right to organize in trade unions is a fundamental civil rights in the U.S.. An interesting complement to this thought was the opinion of one of the unionists, who said: For this vale we are all immigrants. To my knowledge no one has a permanent residence on earth.
At the hall, the vast majority are Latinos. Some people use headphones, with translation into Spanish. Take away the voice of immigrants, talking about his events with America. Nujerry Suadaovang is LaotaĹczykiem. It should be persecuted by the government for ethnic Hmong. By Cambodia fled to the United States. First, he landed in Los Angeles. Then in Minnesota. For 2 years he worked as a bus driver. Wife, 2-by children, no benefits or insurance. Low wages. Once enrolled in the union, employer relationship deteriorated. Nujerry stood against the charge that the bus runs too slowly. Suspended him from work. My only fault was that I did not want to give and wanted to use the family to provide decent living conditions – says Suadaovang. Estela and Evertina Albino from Mexico worked as a maid in the hotel „Holiday Inn” in Minneapolis. Downtrodden immigrant women seek protection in the trade unions. We had a break for rest-mentioned Evertina. In four hours we had to clean 16 rooms. In previous work, for the same job they gave us eight hours. The owner, when he learned of plans to workers, threatened by the INS. Harassment began.
In October 1999, when nine workers joined the „union” on the second day were arrested by „immigration”. The owner, thus decided to break the resistance of immigrants. Skuto us handcuffed-mentioned Esteza. For seven days we sat behind bars, with kryminalistkami, in prison fatigues. Threatened us with deportation.
Came out on bail, paid by the local 17-the trade unions. In their defense stood the church and the local community. The case became notorious in the entire United. Challenged the employer of discrimination. INS has chosen the „Holiday Inn”, although thousands of others worked around the „illegal”. It is hard to believe it coincidence.
Sentence was passed in April. Immigrants were given a two-year deferral of deportation. During this time they can work legally in the U.S.. In exchange for the waiver of other claims, were given compensation at $ 2.000.
It was interesting instance of Robert Ginsburg, Director of the Centre for Work and Social Research in Chicago, who spoke about the problem of slave labor facilities. Usually it is believed that this is an issue of Los Angeles or New York, he said. Meanwhile, occurs even in cities such as Chicago. Research shows that 37 per cent. adult residents of metropolitan Chicago once worked in inappropriate conditions. The scale of irregularities is here varies, ranging from lack of rest breaks and access to toilets, through lack of emergency exits or protective clothing and the employment of children and the elderly, and sexual harassment or pay below the federal minimum ending.
This is not just a problem of immigrants. It is estimated that slave labor in factories, one in five Americans toil. Employees are sometimes harassed because of their gender, sexual orientation, color, country of origin.
Eliseo Chavez presented his experiences as an undocumented immigrant in Chicago, working in full-time casual, as a worker for hours. I wanted to get a job in a hotel or a factory, but without papers it is impossible, says Mexican. It happened that I worked 8 hours without a break, and then again 8 hours. But, to me not to pay overtime if the employer hired me for someone else’s Social Security card. Such, as I often suffer accidents and are dismissed. Threatens them. They come to a large hospital bills. Virtually impossible to get out of this circle of poverty. Amnesty is very important to us.
Alejandro Zepeda and Carmen Najera laundry work in Chicago. Hot, stuffy, low wages, sums up Alejandro. It is really murderous work. Then there are threats, and physical and mental abuse. Undocumented immigrants are easy prey for DIRECTOR. When we demand better conditions, frightens us that our work others are waiting, adds Carmen.
Margarita Klein explains that through the trade unions can improve the situation. Cites the example of his company UNITE, where the union negotiated a section 5 collective agreement, under which the INS has no right to enter the premises, without prior notice. Not everything we managed to push through, but you can see improvement already-said Margarita.
The most emotional speech was interrupted by tears, Rosa Rios, immigrant from Mexico. Three days after starting work as a maid in the hotel I realized that the manager uses us. I had an accident, hurt in the foot. Although sick leave I had to continue to work standing up. Manager said that we do not have the same rights as Americans. Once cleaned the room. I was alone on the first floor. He entered the manager. He said that I came. I did it. I was scared. He asked if I want a permanent job. He said that the subject is sex. He turned me onto the bed I ran away screaming.
On the second day of assistant warned me that I’m working poorly. I was called to the manager. He sat in the office. I thought that somehow zaĹagodzimy matter. And he began to shout that I am a whore and I give only to the exemption. I asked, so I’m not throwing. Bradzo I wanted to this work. I promised that I will not tell anyone. Despite this, I slowed down. My friend advised that I reported the matter to the police. Currently in the process of the court. I will fight to the end. These words were accompanied by warm ovation collected.
Marciel Garcia – Executive Director of the Coalition for the Rights of immigrants and refugees in Illinois, a network of 96 organizations, unions gave symbolic letters of appeal for amnesty, signed by the immigrant community. Planned to collect 25.000 signatures, told a reporter 'Express’. Meanwhile, managed to collect up to 65.000. From this – 12,000 – 15,000 by the Poles!
Hot przyjÄ to occurrence of a democratic congressman from the 4th Luis Gutierrez District in Chicago. It immigrants built this country, he said. Many of them were not even treated as human beings. Today we stand at the threshold of enormous changes in immigration. We are united on this front ethnic working people. Older immigrants remember how in the slaughterhouses of Chicago, the Poles were baiting the Italians, the Italians to Latinos and African Americans for all others. Today, each of them has the same rights, regardless of immigration status and nationality.
Referring to the amnesty, Gutirrez congressman said: With great pleasure I took in March to hand the number of the „Washington Post,” where I read the news of a proposed amnesty for undocumented immigrants. We fully subscribe to the demands of the AFL-CIO. I stand also of the view that immigration system must be reformed in the U.S.. In this area, not going so well. Suffice to say that in Chicago alone, the INS has lost 4.000 naturalization applications. In the whole country, this number rises to 40,000.
The speaker also pointed out that every immigrant should have the right to appeal before a court in the event of an unfavorable decision on immigration. Congress is characterized by incredible ignorance on immigration issues – thundered Congressman Gutierrez, whose family comes from Puerto Rico. It happens that the father is a U.S. citizen and his mother and children have trouble getting a „green card”. Our policy must foster families together rather than breaking them. Our goal is that all those who are undocumented immigrants now in the U.S. could stay here and legalize the stay!
Reporter „Express” Linde said Chavez-Thompson, which signed on with appeals and union amnesty initiative. After completing all the regional conferences will prepare a report of the results, based on the opinions of immigrants – said. The report, endorsed the recommendations as to the required actions will be submitted to the Executive Council AFL-CIO. Include a list of the most urgent is to solve the problems connected with the life and work of documented and undocumented immigrants. This document, after application of amendments and additions will be ready – I think – somewhere in August this year. Even before November will be developed for the demands of politicians who submit a proposal for a statutory right in Congress. The legislative process should begin late this year.
Can you speak about a specific period of amnesty? One thing is certain, will address the Congress next term, which must accept the law. The effects most likely will be announced next year. Now, after the initiative of trade unionists have some other immigration proposals, including from Vice President Al Gore. Glad that mobilized others to act. Already today, I am ready to submit the appropriate amnesty initiative in Congress – assured Congressman Gutierrez, in an interview with a reporter „Express”. Conducting amnesty will still dish. Do not change the fact that we are now faced with major changes in immigration. Soon, success may result in efforts to legalize those who came to the U.S. before the year 1986 should have received permanent residence but do not get a „green card”. It is about hundreds of thousands of people. Even then, in the meantime to gain support and accelerate the general immigration amnesty proposal. Our responsibility is to create six million undocumented immigrants in the U.S. a chance to prove that due to the observance of the rights, diligence, contribution to public life should become a part of our society. If they meet these criteria should be accepted as legal residents U.S..
Let me repeat – we are ready to submit to Congress a draft amnesty law later this year, if everything is ready. In my opinion, but first it must be ensured for all those who „sneaked in” through the screen of the previous amnesty. If we can make these very people can prove their right to a „green card” to receive it, then the struggle for universal amnesty will be easier. As a member of Congress wholeheartedly endorse the draft general amnesty.
And I know that these politicians in our parliament, much more.
Don Turner: Our forums, held in the city of immigrants, which is Chicago, has used a national awareness of the importance of immigration issues. According to the union, it’s time for amnesty. It is not only a matter of Latinos, but also Poles, Russians, Irish, and representatives of other ethnic groups.
At the meeting lacked the promised representatives of Polish organizations. It was therefore expected presentation of our immigration problems. They failed, the representatives of Polish media. At the convention was only present president of the Polish – Italian – Zenon Golba, known for his compatriots provide assistance, mainly in immigration matters. Significantly Polish-Italian organization helped to collect signatures for a change of immigration laws. Do not have died there specific arrangements for amnesty but nevertheless I think the convention as important and useful meeting – he said. It is a pity that, apart from Mr. Golb not heard of other Polish votes, and a big polo and needs even more. After the meeting, Mr. Golba said he was pleased with the attitude and position of trade unions in support of immigrants.
10 YEARS JUBILEE ORGANIZATION
A decade IPAU
On the occasion of 10th anniversary activities in a reputable banquet hall in Chicago Biagio banquet took place of the Polish-Italian (OPW), Italian-Polish-American Unity Organization, this is the full name. In a room filled to capacity (over 400 people), the President recalled Zenon Golba assumptions organization and its history. OPW was established as a self-help relationship, mainly in solving the problems of immigration and other legal matters, especially those most skaplikowanych. This thread is from the rest of the main scope of the action today.
…We have behind us 10 very busy and fruitful year .., said the President Golba – I want more heartily thank all those organizations and individuals who contributed referral to our joint success. And they are undeniable and difficult to overestimate .. As the Polish rodzinyprzed saving rate unjust and imminent deportation, finding the kidnapped child, or are long-term assistance in recovering wages owed? No wonder he knows that during the ceremony, the president adresemorganizacji fell and her appreciation and thanks.
The most important aspect of our business is – Zenon Prezees Golba said Chicago magazine reporter Express – from trying it clear to his fellow countrymen, and his case should please brac in his hands. Passivity and the expectation of it, that someone will arrange for us to not perform in America. Stocks continuing to appeal for joining our organization that will be so strong and effective as we ourselves And no shortage of examples of efficiency. Just wspomniecchocby lobingowa demonstrations at the Washington Capitol, where members and supporters demanded the restoration organizacjiskutecznie immigration section 245 (i) for the family integrity. Do not forget about the participation of the Organization of the struggle for Polish accession to NATO.
Using this opportunity, we asked why the president of the alliance just erected a posko-Italian? – Exaggerate the American community of interests of both nations, and my family connections and business – says with a smile president Zenon Golba. – One might say: Pole & Italy – two Bratanki This mutually beneficial alliance of American reality check seeding, where we can count on poparciewielu influential American politicians of Italian origin.
Join the congratulations, wishing them many more anniversaries …
Prepared by: Andrew Wasewicz – Weekly Express
I congratulate the decade anniversary of the Polish business – Italian. It’s a good time to return to the Sources: when, under what circumstances and with what intentions the Lord’s organization was founded?
ZG: Thank you for your congratulations. The more thoughtful take them from you, who knows the Polish community and the diversity of Polish organizations. Our business began in December 1993, when it came to the first meeting, before the legal sanction of the Organisation of the future Polish-Italian Ethnic Unity. In 1996, the organization name was changed to the Italian-Polish-American Unity Organization and in this form remains to this day. Observing the Polish community organizations and not difficult to see weakness in many areas, even comparing it with other ethnic groups. In 1989, during one of the many meetings in an Italian, I learned that Italian emigration met with the same or very similar problems as the Polish group. The problems are mostly Italian group for the past day, but it did not come the same. Group Polonia durable and lasts a sense of powerlessness, even though we all wish well. But that’s not enough, you begin to work together, but together they do very few Poles.
Why is this happening?
ZG: We should ask this question to our countrymen. However, I can say it was my and our terms and assumptions. First, to overcome skip any dissension and discord. Collaborate with organizations and individuals, who so desire such cooperation. Then, 10 years ago, it was very difficult for anyone to propose a collaboration, because for many organizations is the only exponent of the acquis year of its foundation. But it is for us to become a stimulus to action, we wanted to show that you can better, efficient and effective, without wypominania others their incompetence. All activities and their effectiveness go hand in hand with those involved in the individuals, who with the utmost determination and dedication, desire a particular purpose. It is not practicable, nothing if not accompanied by the strength, dedication and devotion. You can say that it is the umbrella for all, arguing this year and the size should be added, however, to know where the rain falls.
Which of the original intentions of the organization proved to be most relevant and that have worked best in practice the past 10 years?
ZG: One of the assumptions of our newly formed organization was the will to act to change the negative view of Poles and Polish community here. This stemmed from the fact that many of our countrymen could not understand that the law is in this country in order to observe them. There were so such legal situations, where other law firms willing to undertake. For various reasons, eg it was beyond their capabilities, experience, or specialized lawyer. Now, after years, we can safely say that our organization focused around the excellent legal force. Specific case now goes to a lawyer who is the best in this field. For the rare cases so is the communication. subcontract. We’re also keen to make sure that the Poles realize that in the new country in the new reality of their affairs must take care yourself, through participation in the life of Polish and Polish-American organizations. Meanwhile, one could and still can be felt to think that „someone take care of it for me.” In this respect we think the most progress, because already in 1997 through direct stakeholder immigration changes, we went to Washington seeking a relaxation of the immigration regulations – regulations. Efficient and effective interventions gave the immigration law, many of us a clear sense that you can or can not make changes to the reporting individual cases of persons. This resulted in a reduction in the risk of possible legal consequences after losing the case. And experience has shown, often applicant learned about the consequences of losing the case in parallel with the reaction of the authorities of law, and then it was too late to reverse the situation. This is especially true for recent legal regulations, where a criminal offense, criminal even green card holders may be sent back to Polish. The most important thing is for many of the same already aware that „you are not alone.” We set also from the beginning of the wide participation of young people. Really young people, those under 30 years of age. This is our success, that actually addressed our business to
Who of the Polish community organizations came to the Lord, he who from Italy, and with what expectations?
ZG: For our organization are quite diverse environment, and that both the Polish and Italian. Starting from a very famous people in the environment, after those who convinced themselves that it is an opportunity for them to be with us in the organization of Polish-Italian. Famous businessmen are guided by their interests, and those who just want to achieve something, their own rations. And very well, because there must be something for everyone who is interested in participating in the organization of Polish-Italian. Organization and ensures that existed and was always maintained a good balance of needs and dedication of each member.
What forms of social help organizations maintain a relationship with the members and what continues to bring new members?
ZG: In 1996-2001 we organized big picnics and ethnic festivals, which focused not only a large number of participants, but steadily expanded presentations, exhibitors and producers, as Polonia, as well as ethnic business. We did encounter Halloween, Christmas organized popular acceptance, as well as competitions for children. However, „not on public holidays,” comprised primarily Efficient and effective support, advice and true dedication to the affairs notifying us humans. Commonly we gained recognition and confidence in the credibility of the organization’s activities.
What is the environmental profile, age and wealth of members of the organization?
ZG: How difficult was not observed on the anniversary banquet, the age of individuals in organizations ranging from 4 years to 84 Everyone is able to bring something back, give something of yourself. You just have to take care of proportionate interest in seeking people. There are certainly several categories of members. Those who see themselves primarily for professional and business opportunities, but also personal, as well as those who need to come closer to us. All the links involved in our organization. I would be difficult to determine whether the Polish party, or Italian in our organization is majÄtniejsza. There are at least very close to each other. Contrary to appearances, the power will belong to the Poles.
What environmental initiatives do you consider the biggest success in the past decade?
ZG: success is sure to continue the same activities already active for 10 years and systematically enlarging the size of the organization, even at the expense of other ethnic groups. Of course our main goal was and is a combination of Polish-Italian forces at many levels, wide exit the U.S. market and Europe, both with our environmental issues and with the business of. The fact that other nations declare themselves to us because they see our potential and an interest in participating, but we enjoy. Just as undeniable effectiveness and determination taken and tasks. Ourselves and many of their compatriots are feeling a sense of satisfaction and acknowledge that there is someone who is not afraid of difficult challenges. It is important to have contact points behind him in Rome, Warsaw and Paris.
What political campaigns for the environment has taken the Lord’s Polish community organization?
ZG: Those were the most numerous. Let them just to mention a political election campaigns, the governor of Illinois in 1994, presidential election campaigns of 1996, during which there was a meeting with the Republican candidate, Robert Dole. In latach1996, 1997, 1998 we were involved in the political struggle for the adoption of Polish membership of NATO, in the seasons 1996, 1997, 1998 in the political efforts of the new immigration regulations, specifically the immigration sections 245 (i). We met with Speaker of the House of Representatives, Congressman Newt Gingrich. In 1999 we tried to the success of the Foundation Polish-American Enterprise Fund. Then solicited leave granted in Poland before the fund in the amount of U.S. $ 280 million dollars to the development of small and small businesses. This action ultimately succeeded. In 2000, presidential elections took place in America. We met with directors of election campaigns, both Republican and Democratic, to give them our position. We organized mass demonstrations in Chicago to immigrant settlement issues in our city. Between 2001 and 2002 senatorial elections partycypowaliĹmy in NY, and in 2002 in political campaigns and in elections in Illinois. In 2003 we ran our political lobbystki in Washington, DC
What you gain the allies in their actions (political and ethnic minorities)?
ZG: In all the above-mentioned actions of political groups and individuals have obtained support from the Italian. In situations of immigration also joined us Latinos. Since 1996, our achievements systematically enlarging lobbingowy in Washington. In 1996, we had few contacts with Congress, yet, in later years have been well protected routes.
What are the goals of the organization for the next 10 summer? What are the current objectives and their priorities?
ZG: I always soliciting the case of multi-ethnic position gives greater opportunities, in spite of that Italian interests do not always coincide with the needs of Polish. Maintain and continue building a strong base lobingu political and business-based businesses, the Polish-American is our primary goal. Closely follow the course of events in America and build further contacts and locations in other states. At present we have already locations in 7 states.
Now please tell us more about yourself, what prompted you personally to set up a new organization seeking an alliance with other ethnic group, and what you wrote in your account as a personal success in life?
ZG: I feel that so far there has been a turning point impotence and lack of effective action. It was necessary to tell myself that enough of this weakness, that time is skillfully and carefully begin to realize the assumptions. It is not enough just to say this is a real art show, and it probably did. The success of my organization’s success, the success of many wonderful people who have greatly contributed to promote and support the new organization in acacias. It is these friendships provide a hand in such important moments gave me further impetus to action. One thing is certain, that success is what we have managed to achieve during these past 10 years. Is not a secret that at the same time, numerous organizations, clubs, associations were formed and closed its operations. We firmly adhered to once off course. Practically speaking, we have achieved in large measure what the early zamierzyliĹmy. We wanted to have his own radio program, we had him already in the years 96-99. We have our own, independent magazine-newsletter, „Unita newspaper” since 1995. There is also a means and a real determination to work. Continuing the achievements of the 10th anniversary of our organization, I would like to thank all those wonderful people who have greatly contributed to our success. Thank you first of all the editor „Official Federal,” Mr. Wojciech BiaĹasiewiczowi for their help in realization of our objectives, the desire for further continuation of our cooperation in following years. Similarly, the weekly „Express” and the lords and Andrzej Janusz WÄ sewiczom thank you for the systematic presentation of the emergency section, Fri „Collisions with the law.” I am grateful to the many radio programs that transmit messages and information about the activities of our organization. Hall for our 10th anniversary of the Polish-Italian was full. Banquet guests were not only members themselves united in our organization, and their families arrived, and many invited guests. The Polish-American organizations, our banquet honored Mrs. Virginia Sikora President of the Association of Polish Women in America. The greatest emphasis of our banquet was common in the part of our youth. With satisfaction I have to say that the banquet was a success apsolutnym entire organization! Thank you for this interview.
Interview by Wojciech A. Wierzewski magazine editor in chief of the oldest Polish community in America „Consent”.
Appeal of the Polish-Italian-American on NATO enlargement.
Senator Trent Lott, the Senate majority leader, until the Christmas break, so to 20 April., Stopped the debate and vote on the ratification of the Law on NATO enlargement, which may lead to the adoption of the Alliance of Polish, Czech and Hungarian.
The longer time limit is delayed voting on the law on ratification of NATO enlargement, the greater chance to the opponents of this idea to take further action which might hamper or even prevent its adoption. It is therefore of great importance that we on our side this time used as efficiently as possible.
Organization of the Polish-Italian-American appeals to its members and interested Americans to grabbed the phone and showed her senators, that their voters are demanding the adoption of the Law on ratification of the Polish accession to NATO today! As the Senate Committee on Foreign Affairs calls still more opponents than supporters of the idea of ââNATO enlargement, the Organization of Polish-American Italo and all friends of the Polish question must take the initiative.
STILL CALL TODAY WASHINGTON! * DzwoĹmy the Senate majority leader Trent Lott 1-202-224 6253 or 1-202-224 3135. * DzwoĹmy the Democratic minority leader Tom Daschle 1-202-224 2321.
If you’re president of the Polish organizations, we urge you made sure that each member of this organization is informed of this very urgent and important action. Let us do everything in our power today! Let our phones reach the senators continued until the final vote.
Przekazujmy our point of view of Senators office staff who collect our phone. Us present as a voter, let’s add our name and address and let us in August to senators asking them not to postpone the vote on NATO. Debate on this topic was already enough! We hope that Senators will vote „YES” on ratification. Vote for ratyfacjÄ NATO enlargement will be good for America and will contribute to consolidating peace and security in Europe!
PS If you have any problems with the phone numbers listed above skorzaystajmy of information in the Capitol at number 1-202-224 3121
* Below is a list of senators, which our phone or fax it short note would be of particular help to make the right decision. If we have friends in the states, whose representatives in the Senate are presented here for the politicians, dzwoĹmy to these people arguing how important their phone today would be their senator to support the enlargement of NATO.
Ben Nighthorse Campbell (R-CO) Phone: 1-202-224 5852 Larry E. Craig (R-ID) 1-202-224 5752 Kay Bailey Hutchison (R-TX) 1-202-224 5922 Jim M. Jeffords ( R-VT) 1-202-224 5141 Kempthone Dick (R-ID) 1-202-224 6142 Don Nickles (R-CO) 1-202-224 5754 Ted Stevens (R-AK) 1-202-224 3004 John W. Warner (R-VA) 1-202-224 2023 Democrats: Robert C. Byrd (D-WV) 1-202-224 Ernest F. Hollings 3954 (D-SC) 1-202-224 6121 Edward M. Kennedy (D-MA) 1-202-224 4543 Daniel P. Moynihan (D-NY) 1-202-224 4451 Robert Torricelli (D-NJ) 1-202-224 3224 Paul Wellstone (D-MN) 1-202 – Ron Wyden 224 5641 (D-OR) 1-202-224 5344
We recall once again that our phones with the support of the enlargement of NATO today is extremely important. Opponents of the inclusion of Polish accession to NATO act now particularly active and already have achieved some success leading to a delay in the ratification debate. Let us not waste time and so the U.S. Senators Let’s make the right decision. Participation and promotion of telephone share today is the duty of members of the Polish-Italian-American and the entire Polish community. We hope that the mass in August to join it all, which is expensive and democratic development of Polish security. You are a voter and a citizen of the U.S. senators write your own review.
President of the Polish-Italian-American, Zenon Golba
The political struggles of the Italian-Polish-American on NATO.
When the great of this world decided in 1945 to spheres of influence, often repeated, that it was decided about us without us. That was then, and today we ask ourselves whether we learned anything from history lessons. Now it is a historic opportunity for the Polish, for us. Do not miss this chance. Do not let our kids said, it was decided for us in your presence.
I think it is the duty of all the Poles call the toll-free number 1-800-522-6721. This is the number of central government in Washington DC, which will connect to the selected office of Senator. Please call the undecided from all states. Upon request, you must leave your name. As in the case of shares of immigration should be made aware and encourage their English-speaking friends, so that the undecided vote in favor of the candidate countries. The U.S. Senate was hearing, where opponents of NATO expansion, fully demonstrated by the lack of knowledge of the history, or their voters so their tips. Our duty is to present the historical truth.
Below is a letter I Organization of Italian-Polish-American, sent to U.S. Senators undecided. Such lists were given to embassies and kosulaty: Czech, Polish, Slovak Republic, Hungary and Italy. Similar messages were sent in English, Italian associations to organize Czech-Slovak and Hungarian across America.
March 5, 1998
President of the Italian-Polish-American, Zenon Golba
Letter to Senator D’Amato.
United State Senate
Washington, DC 20510
Sznowny Mr. Senator: We ask the Lord concerned about your proposal, which compels governments Polish, Hungarian and Czech Republic to make a special warranty prior to NATO. We would like to remind Senator, that the issue of NATO enlargement, is a matter of global security. This is in the interest of the countries that have recently gained their freedom and want to rebuild its economy and democracy, and in the interests of the United States.
We believe that the fulfillment of all required guarantees is very complicated. We agree, however, that the governments of the countries applying for NATO membership should settle the matter of insurance policies and loss of property as a result of the Nazi occupation and Soviet. But this should not and can not be conditional on these countries joining NATO.
We would like to see you pointed out some historical facts: 1) In the years 1959-1968, the Polish government introduced a law allowing holders of insurance policies to settle claims over the nine years. 2) 16th July 1960 agreed between the Government of the United States and the Government of the People’s Republic, the Polish government agrees to pay the sum of $ 40 million the U.S. government as compensation for all applications that were reported both before and after the conclusion of interstate agreements.
In his speech, Senator Torricielli said, „They want to join the most respected military pact in the world. And here is my price. Aspire to join NATO, that before this happens uregulujcie claims of our citizens (talking about American citizens now, and previously residing in Poland) and treat them properly. Remarks of Senator are unjust and destroy the reputation of these three heroic nations. Senator speaks of the „price” that these three countries should pay. This is the most cruel and unjust, because the tragedy of millions who have lost everything can not be included in any price. What price can be put human life – Senator?
This is Nazi Germany, the 1st of September 1939 began World War II attack on Poland. Russia concluded a treacherous pact Ribbentrop-Molotov 28th September 1939. This shameful pact divided Poland into two parts. Germany seized 150.486 miles square, where he lived 22,250.00 thousand. people, and that Russia had taken 77.620 miles square where the Poles lived 13,090.000. This is Nazi Germany carried out the extermination of Jews living in Poland and other occupied territories.
It brought the Nazis to exterminate Polish intellectual potential and the clergy, and consequently to the destruction of Polish culture. This is most painfully felt Poland German occupation. Mass shootings and executions were common. The Poles were the most exploited people. During the withdrawal of Polish troops Nazi, Hitler ordered completely destroy Poland. Poland, the Czech Republic and Hungary suffered a huge loss of life fighting for the Allies against Nazi Germany. Polish forces fought on all fronts of World War II. Polish underground army was constantly harassed the enemy, blocking military shipments. It’s Polish and Czech pilots defended Britain in the most difficult moments. These soldiers expected that after the war will return to a free country. The truth turned out to be cruel. The leaders of the victorious army, allies in Tehran, Yalta and Potsdam, sold to Poland, the Czech Republic and Hungary Stalin.So Senator, paid a high price.
|During a visit to Chicago, U.S. Senator Alfonso D’Amato of New York there was a formal meeting with local dziĹaczami politics and business. Pictured Senator D’Amato (first from left) shakes hands Zenon Golbie President of the IPA.|
As a defender of states aspiring to NATO, we know that the United States will defend these countries, but it’s Polish Polish girls and boys will die in defense of Polish security and NATO. This is in the interest of the United States. If we talk about the costs of NATO expansion, they are very modest 1.5 billion dollars spread over 10-years. Poland and other candidates will pay their obligations, which declared publicly.
SUMMARY I think it is unfair that in his speech, Senator, before the Senate, you forgot about historical truth. This presents you in a bad light distorting the facts. Inflicts harm you aspiring countries. This is simply using your words „legally unlikely” to U.S. Senator stooped so low, just to prove your point. It is also tragic that connects you two different things with each other. The matter of insurance policies, and the accession to NATO, which have nothing in common Mr. Senator.
Zenon Golba, President of the Italian-Polish-American.
PS This letter sent Italian-Polish Organisation for Senators to vote did not support ignorant of historical truth. Support our campaign gave businessy and friendly Italian organizations and cooperating with the Organization for the Italian-Polish-American.
EVENTS – TESTIMONIALS
We support Ms. ANNA KLOCEK
Organization of the Polish-Italian-Amerykaska, thanks all participants for the election kamapanii Anna KLOCEK, Aledrmana Wardy
Participants in the campaign to block the selection of Mrs. Anna Aldermana 45 Wardy
Two days before the elections to local authorities in Chicago, in the very snowy Sunday, February 25, 2007, representatives of the Polish-Italian-American voters visited the 45-Wardy, to convince them that Anna Klocek is an appropriate candidate for Aldermana Wardy 45 and fully be trusted to manage the district in Chicago. From the initial opinion and experience working in direct contact with voters experienced a lot of positive reaction. We hope that this will translate into a favorable outcome of the election for Mrs. Anna Klocek and Polonia environment.
Depth of campaign work on Sunday February 25, 2007
Thanks again to all participants of campaign work for the full dedication and devotion of their time on Sunday despite the bad weather .. No financial equivalent may not be comparable with unselfish dedication and strength Let’s hope that extra time is within the electoral candidates in Polish Polish wardzie so. The organization’s management.
Losing does not mean disaster
First of all wyspaĹam and generally I’m happy. Since the election results I received lots of phone calls from friends and my supporters, from people living in my area. Also received calls from several important politicians from Chicago.Congratulated me a good campaign, saying that I achieved a lot as a person who came to the U.S. 20 years ago and the first election, I got started in 1080 whose voices.
The 1080 vote is not the best result for a Polish neighborhood, and the lady lively campaign.
I tried to do everything possible to revive the Polish community in political terms. In the opinion of many people is a project undertaken was insufficient and too late. There was not much heard about me. And I did what I could.By the way I want to thank all the representatives of the Polish media who have supported me. I came to the conclusion that we as a Polish ethnic group do not realize the importance of voting and its support for candidates.
What do you think makes the American Poles are now so weak politically, they have their representatives in the government even lower, local levels?
It’s not just our problem. Voter turnout in the district where I started was only 30%.
Turnout was very low indeed …
He used it in my main election opponent Patrick Levar, who starting in August of this „borrowed” the campaign staff of another circle, where there was no competition to mobilize up to many of his supporters to vote. People who worked in his favor, there were many. We unfortunately could not match him. And it is very much-the mobilization of voters before the vote. My group election and the remaining group of my two opponents were quite slim.We were not able, for example, as did the people Levar, check on election day at 1 PM who did not come to vote, get in the car and go after these people.
Are you wondering why generally over you lost?
Skeptics have told me that I had no chance, but for five months I firmly believe that I can win, or go to the second round of elections. I take as a result of the election defeat of the battle, not a total disaster. I’m not going to leave the political scene and among the Polish community in Chicago at all. One reason for my defeat was the fact that the late election campaign began. Besides, I had no funds for the campaign at least in part, such as were my opponents. Patrick Levar gave to his campaign about $ 220,000, Mr. Boykie, who was the second gave about $ 80,000, and I spent less than $ 10,000.Already this comparison shows how important the funds. Winner gave the most. And I did not have sufficient or group of employees the campaign, financial or Wednesday. On the other hand I hear compliments, that I did very much, that I was anywhere I could be.
I know I disappointed Mrs. attitude of some Polish businesses and organizations located in wardzie you not having your support.
It was very sad though it was a pair of Polish businesses, which gave me the money, donations were up a thousand dollars.It really helped me. I will say-for example-that sent 5000 flyers costs about $ 6.600. These are very large sums to the poor kamanpaniÄ. Group members of the Polish National Alliance privately gave me some money. The organization has helped me a Polish-Italian, my friends helped me, helped me to some real estate agents offices, help me „Plus Magazine”. In a few days on my website you will find in August thanks to all my allies and donors. I would have expected that large organizations abroad will help me, or at least remain neutral, but ask her czoĹonkĂłw for help for me. Levar was a whole army of workers who ran campaigns for him, and I had only 20 such people-here.
That did not support Ms. Polonia organizations probably resulted from their lack of faith in your victory.
This is one of the reasons. But we can not always support those who have a chance of winning. We must believe in their strength. We have children, we want to be successes, but the road to success begins with confidence in their capabilities and we can not always believe those who say they do not have the opportunities that are not przepchamy. His disbelief wing cuts to those who have a chance to succeed in life.
So has the faith in yourself …
You have to people who believe in themselves to reach out. The success of my campaign is that persuading people to vote, that convicted them of how important a part in the elections. But I am sorry that the leading Polish-American organization did not remain neutral and endorsed my opponent.Told me about it with the relevant komenatrzami my American friends, saying that the Poles can not be united. For me, do not count those who did not believe. Thank you.
Interviewed by Wojciech Minicz
Do you really Poland is closer to Polish?
…”Senate Estimates living abroad, 17 million Poles. Most numerous cluster of Polish emigrants are the United States, lives there, as estimated Polish consular and diplomatic institutions – more than 10 million Poles. Furthermore, the large Polish community centers are located in Brazil, Canada, Germany and France. The eastern border of the majority of Poles live in Ukraine (over a million), Belarus, Russia and Lithuania …”
As Michael said Dworczyk in 2006 for the Polish state budget has been allocated a total of about 136 million. Adviser to the Prime Minister added that he presented at the meeting of the Commission report”.. after appropriate amendments, should become a starting point to develop a program of the Government Cooperation with the Polonia and Poles Abroad”. The question is whether the creation of this program will take into account the wishes and opinions of Polish-American, and if so in what form and what channels to reach the government board? Here’s the question for an unambiguous and clear answers.
And in the meantime, the director of the Department of Consular ds Diaspora and the Polish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Andrew Jesionowski, in an interview on the pages of the New Official””Closer”made a declaration”Polonia. Representative of the Polish Foreign Ministry m. In. He said: …American Polonia is the oldest and best organized, most numerous and very influential. This may be even greater impact on U.S. opinion leaders, as its potencjaĹjest, in my opinion, not fully exploited. Should recall the role of the Polish community in its efforts to adopt the Polish accession to NATO. This proves that it can effectively fight for important issues, with one voice when he says …”
Asked what American Polonia today could do for the Polish, the director replied:
”We are on permanent contacts, not only at the political level, but also in life. Poland would expect that the Polish community was not united under one banner. It would be unnecessary, because people have different ideas on life, but to unite around the fundamental issues, as once was the effort to adopt the Polish accession to NATO. Today, moreover, the notion of Polonia is a little blurred. You can be a Pole and an ardent patriot mieszkajĹÄ cym not only in Warsaw, Krakow and Wroclaw, but London, New York or Chicago. With today’s communication does not really matter. It is more a matter of a person’s internal sense of how someone feels more and more American Pole Polish origin.”
So it sees the director, Andrew Jesionowski, and we will await the decision of the Polish.
In addition it should be added that in Poland, few people know about efforts to adopt the Polonia Polish accession to NATO and outside the Polish Embassy in Washington and the Consulate in Chicago, no one knows about the participation of Italian-Polish American Unity Organization. Then, when he weighed the fate of countries aspiring for NATO membership, and everything depended on the first and most important decisions that could vote in the Senate U.S.. This Italian organizations with whom the Italian-Polish American Unity Organization supported the efforts of our Polish and together with us influenced the decisions of Senators of Italian descent, and others. Since then almost 10 years have passed and nothing has changed.
What time is the new delegations of Polish visit, so very Polish and Polish-American Chicago, but little change is to look at, and multi-ethnic organizations abroad as Italian-Polish-American Unity Organization. Although the existing structures of Polish organizations are independent and do not affect each other, in Poland are not seen with interest. Leaves much to be desired understanding of the environment Polonia. Lack of orientation in realich and opportunities of individual organizations, and everything is seen through the prism of one organization that truly represents only himself, not the entire Polish community. Optimistic accent meetings with the delegations of Polish government is right that confer multiple reflections presented above. And only the falls we wait for the change of course from the Polish perspective.
Immigration and Legal News: Change in immigration law as seen from Washington
Organization of the Polish-Italian has long been involved in work on changing immigration laws.
From 30 April 2001, or the expiry of the last immigration regulations are ongoing and the debate in the Senate committees and subcommittees as to regulate the legal status,”staying illegally in the United States. Since 2004 the number of undocumented determined na12-16 million, and others see more than 20 million group. Ethnic organizations acting on behalf of immigrants with different intensity attempts to exert pressure on legislators. Aministracja Bush’ai President himself President of Senate consent to proposed amendments to immigration regulations and acknowledge that it is impossible to deport so many illegal immigrants. Despite such statements nothing concrete in this direction was done. The president is opposed to amnesty. One of the effects of immigration pasjonujÄ ej debate is that many words and terms have lost their meaning. Lawmakers simply just talking. But one miss when the rhetoric and discuss with the Congress, from both camps about all aspects of the problem, and I had multiple opportunity in recent weeks, it can be concluded that, despite differences in views closer to a compromise. Recent travels of the President of the Senate Bush’ai arguments highlight the Judiciary Committee that defines the word immigrant is not nationality, but the whole discussion revolves around the Latino immigrants. They are the number and their suitability for the U.S. economy will decide the future shape of regulation of immigration.
Here are the proposals in general terms of the discussion zasadnich three departments, which ultimately will decide what laws will apply to: Department of Homeland Security, Senate Judiciary Committee, Department of Commerce.
- After the first Act in exile must ensure border security. Secretary Chertoff presented the details of steps that the current administration has taken in this regard. The measures taken have already started to bear fruit.
* Doubling spending on border protection.
* Sending the National Guard to strengthen the southern border.
* Launch Initiative Border Protection, Department of National Security (the Department of Homeland Security).
* Complete the procedure „caught and released” at the border.
* Further increase the number of border patrols.
* Allowing employers to check immigration status capabilities of workers.
- Temporary Employment Program
Temporary Employment Program will enhance our national security by allowing foreign workers to legally enter our country, and thereby enable the border guards to focus on the detection of dangerous criminals who want to enter our country, not those of women and mÄszczyzn who come just to work. The provisional program as the name suggests is only temporary. This ensures that there will be a way to remain permanently in America.
- Disclosure of illegal immigrants
Discover the illegal workers from their venture to come out of hiding without amnesty. Most reliable sources reported that in the U.S. today there are about 12-16 million people illegally. This is not in the national interest that such a large population lived in hiding, and was only minimally integrated into society and out of the reach of the law. Here are the requirements stwawiane on the way to obtain the status of:
* Verification of past criminal
* Paying the appropriate penalty
* Paying taxes in the period of illegal stay
* Commitment illegal to wait for their turn legalization
* Learning English
* Having a job
Last very general proposition of democratic and republican congressmen specifies a penalty of $ 2,000 thousand. (Now a thousand.), For illegal stay beyond the visa expiration date, relevant applications, any procedural background checks including their country of origin. The result of the application is successful is to get a conditional permit to work and travel outside the U.S. for a period of 6 years. Would be possible next renewal card, if the conditions set in the 6 year program were met, and nothing has been compromised, eg moral attitude. Details are not discussed, because the debate is still ongoing. Does not specify which groups are illegally residing,, starzystĂłw”adjustment would involve. It is significant that none of the postulates no mention of amnesty, an illegal immigrant imagination conceived.
Tunnel to the U.S.
More and more tunnels connecting Mexico with the U.S.
The entrance to its 750 meters underground passage was found near the airport located near a warehouse in Tijuana. From there, illegal immigrants and smugglers could without much difficulty to enter the United States. U.S. authorities surprised the size and perfection of execution podkopu. The underground passage is 1.8 meters tall and wide and a half – this means that its users can be easily and quickly it moved. It has lighting, ventilation and covered with a cement floor, which facilitates the transport carts. Is provided with a drainage system and the wooden beams to prevent the lower left in the ground.
Inside the packages were found containing two tons of marijuana – presumably the tunnel was used by drug traffickers. Certainly dozens of illegal immigrants in this way penetrate the territory of the United States. Mexican police on the trail not soon wpadĹaby tunnel had not received instructions from an anonymous informant.
John Fernandez, head of the U.S. anti-drug agency (DEA) in San Diego suspects that tunnel was the work of one of the major drug cartels. So far found few other tunnels of this type, but they were more primitive and less complex structure. The underground route from Tijuana „really makes an impression – Michael Unzuelta told reporters, responsible for migration issues along the border near San Diego. – This reminds tunnel mining shaft, made in accordance with the principles of professional engineering.”
But apart from admiring the discovery raises concern primarily. Americans admit that the last encounter more and more new tunnels connecting Mexico with the U.S., and recently found the underground passage to the border with Canada. In this way the United States can enter the terrorists, weapons and explosives. In San Diego has established a special unit dedicated to finding illegal subways. A tunnel officially included into the group of the most serious threats to national security.
Unfortunately, neighborly cooperation with the U.S. Mexico has repeatedly broken. To the great joy of the drug mafia operating in the border areas. A few days ago, police in Texas have failed to stop the three-car field, which probably transported the marijuana. This prevented armed, uniformed men, the Americans took the Mexican soldiers. The incident caused a diplomatic conflict even small between the two countries. The protest by the American ambassador in Mexico. In response, the Mexican foreign minister even put forward the supposition that the armed men could be, in fact, American soldiers.
President George W. Bush promised that he would soon propose a program to combat illegal immigration. Already know that you should act in two ways: to increase vigilance at the borders and severely punish offenders, but also to offer illegal immigrants who have already entered into the U.S. for a temporary way to normalize their situation. They would get several years of work permit, provided that the later they leave the United States and return to his native country. However, it seems that this way of thinking is naive because it is difficult to expect that immigrants marking their presence in the U.S. simply will leave. This applies especially to the citizens of Mexico, where income per capita is many times less than in America.
Barroso is fighting for the abolition of visas for Polish
Currently, the United States requires visas from all new EU Member States except Slovenia. Citizens of the old EU countries, except Greece, do not need to apply for a visa if they want to enter the U.S..
The Commission is aware that the issue of visas to the United States do not want to treat all citizens equally, and an argument for the abolition of visas is not a country belonging to the Union.
In a report from the European Commission by mid-January estimated that the dialogue conducted on the abolition of visas for all EU citizens 'encouraging’, although it did not bring any concrete results. United States consistently are of the opinion that the inclusion of Polish and other new EU countries to the visa-free tourism and business depends on meeting their criteria for participation in this program. The condition for the abolition of visas – as emphasized by the U.S. government – is to reduce the rate below 3 percent tourist visa denials, are not exceeded by coming to the United States authorized period of stay and refrain from illegal work, as well as by foreign passports have to first check if they are not on the list of offenders or the terrorists.
Asylum seekers may lose their green cards
Immigration spokesman Chris Bentley sector said that persons visiting the sick family members do not need to worry. He also explained that the warning is addressed to those who violate the rules and made a statement earlier. This is particularly true of people regularly visiting their countries, leading to suspicions that they received immigrant resident status based on false evidence.
Bentley explained that the Immigration Service for the first time this type of warning issued to asylum seekers officially. Laws and regulations in force for a long time. Experci immigration law argue that the immigration authorities intend to investigate in detail the travels of visitors to their countries and those granted asylum in the U.S. or a green card based on this nucleus.
Immigration – explain experci – will argue that if a person no longer fears persecution in his homeland, that is to say that asylum was granted in error, and the green card was granted based on false grounds. As a result, such a person may be deported. In fact, warning the immigration office is nothing new, but merely another federal project aimed at detecting fraud.
An increasing number of immigrants, but not with the Polish
In the past five years, the number of immigrants in the U.S. increased by 16% – reported U.S. Bureau of the Census. Persons born abroad in 2005 accounted for 12.4% of the U.S. population, an increase of 1.2% since 2000 To be precise, the latest data relate only to people living in the household (family), rather than staying in groups, like students in the dorms, or prisoners. These latter categories are, however, relative margin, not to alter substantially the overall upward trend.
In total, the U.S. now lives 35.7 million immigrants – about 4.9 million more than in 2004 This number includes all born outside America, so U.S. citizens, holders of „green card” (permanent residence), and illegal immigrants. Of Polish immigrants is, according to census, 460,342, down by about 5000 compared to 2000.
The latest figures show a continuing upward trend – in 1990-2000 the number of immigrants increased from 19.8 million to 31.1 million, ie up to 57%.
Most immigrants are immigrants from Mexico – 11 million, followed by China (1.8 million) and India (1.4 million). Immigrants are concentrated in the southwest states: California, Texas, New Mexico and others, as well as in Florida, New York and New Jersey.
Recently, however, more and more immigrants flows to other states, where the former is unlikely to settle, like Missouri, Colorado and the states of New England (north-eastern coast).
U.S. chances for the abolition of visas?
The road is still long, however. To become law the applicable law must be passed by the Senate and the House of Representatives and signed by President George W. Bush. During the handshake, a common version of both houses of Congress, the content of the law is changed frequently, and some corrections are sometimes rejected.
On the other hand, there are now more favorable climate for Polish entry visa waiver program than a year ago. Late last year the Bush administration has signaled willingness to depart from the economic criteria (the fear that visitors take illegal work) in the decisions on visas for citizens of countries of Central and Eastern Europe for the safety criteria.
On abolition of visas for Poles already told a lot, but the situation remained unchanged.
The U.S. Senate passed an amendment to the Act, which paves the way for the abolition of visas for Poles. At the same time, it exacerbates it must meet the criteria for countries wishing to enter the VWP. The complex was originally proposed amendments provide for the inclusion in the Visa Waiver Program countries that cooperate with the U.S. in the war on terrorism. These countries also have to meet certain requirements in the security field trip. These proposals, however, met with opposition from the senators. As a result, the Act therefore introduced an additional criterion.
Now, to qualify for the abolition of visas, a country must have a „visa refusal rate” of less than 10 percent. Unfortunately, Poland does not satisfy this condition. The Senate, however, left a loophole that could lead to the abolition of visas for Poles. Just that the Ministry of National Security finds that few citizens of the country remains illegally in the U.S.. Polish diplomats in Washington, here are optimistic.
Legislative work on the bill will take approximately 2-3 months. This means that it can hit the desk of President Bush in the first half of the year.
Looking for work
A woman. with good knowledge of Italian language in speaking and basic writing takes a job as a housekeeper for a family of Italian. English to the agreement. Permanent residence. It has testimonials from Italy.
Information: 773-775-4400 email@example.com
- Looking for an Italian language teacher for children aged 9 and 11 years.
- Looking for a home in Italy on vacation. Sicily, Calabria, Bari 3 weeks may be at a Polish family, or entire house regardless. June or September.
- How best to send parcels to Italy (Italia).
INFORMATION FOR STUDENTS
Study in Italy.
Polish students this year, subject to the limit of seats were provided for non-EU citizens. They came through scholarship programs, Socrates-Erasmus, also the postgraduate and doctoral studies. Since May 2004 no longer in effect no limits – should be reported directly to the university. Were also abolished all the guarantees financial and housing and entry visas.
Admission to the first year of study in Italy may try to take anyone who has a Polish high school diploma. It opens the door for a three-year cycle (laurea di primo livello) in most directions. If someone has already started to study in Poland and wants to immediately jump to the next year of study in Italy, the Italian school will be eligible based on an extract from the index (abbreviazione di corso). The extract prepared at the request of the student by the home university must be translated and certified by the Italian Consulate in Warsaw.
The admission to specialized secondary education (laurea di secondo livello specialisticha) can apply for after completing the second-or third-year students graduating from the Bachelor. Committee evaluates the possibility of adopting college. Note! In some fields, such as medicine, pharmacy, architecture, engineering, veterinary medicine and orthodontics, secondary school certificate is not enough – there are entrance examinations.
The mandatory and optional exams gets the points, which, together with points for their presence at lectures determine the successful completion of the academic year and admission to the defense of the diploma.
At the postgraduate course Master I or II degree graduates are admitted to the Italian study, respectively first and second degree. Polish graduates can seek admission in the academic diploma recognition (accurate information, please contact the Italian Cultural Institute).
Each university regulates the availability and amount of the scholarship program of doctoral studies. Space of at least three years of study are allocated through a competitive process. PhD thesis can be presented in a foreign language.
HOW TO REGISTER STUDIES?
Applications for admission can be made at the Registry of the university in person or by mail. Sends the copies, the originals are supplied in case of acceptance to college. Some private institutions, such as Universita Bocconi in Milan, do not require submission of the application.
The date specified by the university must provide translated by a sworn translator (a list of translators in the Italian consulate in Warsaw):
â˘ the application for admission to the university (the forms are on the website of the Italian Cultural Institute),
â˘ certificate of knowledge of Italian (eg, certificate of Italian language course in Poland or abroad, language certificate or transcript of the evaluation of the language course),
â˘ secondary school certificate legalized by the competent superintendent and certified by the Office of the MFA and the legalization legalized and certified at the Consulate of Italy in Warsaw (takes care of this week, and the whole operation boils down to the seal by the appropriate person fiscal stamps),
â˘ dichiarazione di valore – a document issued by the Italian Consulate in Warsaw, indicating that the Polish secondary school certificate is accepted in Italy,
WHAT AND WHERE TO STUDIES?
Art, fashion, graphic and industrial design – the lines that have long been attracted to the Italian students from around the world. You can also earn a prestigious degree in economics and management. In addition to economics Italians and foreigners studying here right most, engineering, literature and philosophy, medicine and life sciences.
In addition to public universities, academic age: Florence, Rome, Venice and Milan, here you can also study at private colleges and universities. A report published last year by the 'Financial Times’ ranking of the best university management was young unlisted Bocconi University of Milan – finished 12th place in the world, second in Europe.
How to arrange RESIDENCE PERMIT?
The certificate of acceptance by the university to study, you must apply for a residence permit (carta di soggiorno) in the appropriate questurze, or police station.
HOW TO TREATMENT?
Persons insured in Poland in the NFZ have the right to so. necessary services (these include accidents, injuries, sudden illness, attack, etc.). Before going abroad should be withdrawn from the NFZ Form E-111 certifying that the Polish fund will cover the cost of treatment abroad. Forms are available at branches of NFZ and www.nfz.gov.pl / ue.
Students can use the health care centers in the state paid registration, health card and the receipt of choosing a family doctor in the District center ASL (Servizio Sanitario Nazionale).
Insurance against medical expenses and accidents abroad can be purchased in Italy or in Poland.
JOB FOR STUDENTS
Ĺťacy can legally work 20 hours per week. To a contract of employment and create an account at a bank is required tax code (codice fiscale) upon presentation of a passport issued by the appropriate Agenzia delle Entrate (equivalent to the tax office). Job ads are on university bulletin boards, in offices, and international cooperation organizations and the Erasmus Student Network International Students Desk.
Students usually work as a babysitter or a tutor of English. Earnings from 7 euros per hour. In the case of accommodation with the family – from 3.5 euros per hour. This type of work can be organized already in Poland.
NFORMATION: Aupair Center of Poland, ul. Sienna 4 / 1, 70-542 Szczecin, phone: (0-91) 489 51 23, fax 489 51 17 firstname.lastname@example.org, www.aupaircenter.com, www.aupair.com.pl, www.au-pair . com.
ACCOMMODATION AND MEALS
That, or get a place in halls of residence, depends on the average ratings and the economic situation of the family. The dormitories are rooms from single to few persons with kitchen and bathroom or shared kitchen and bathroom. Many students live with his family, in which they work, caring for children. In Milan, considered Italy’s most expensive city for bed-sit you have to pay 700 euros for an apartment of two or more peaceful than 1.5 thousand. euro. In Rome of 400 for studio apartment, one bedroom from 1.2 per thousand. euro, in Taormina, respectively 350 and 600 euros. It is accepted that fees are paid three months in advance and submit a three-month deposit. Estate agents take over ten percent of the annual rental fee.
All students can benefit from the university canteen. In Milan dishes cost between âŹ 2, a full dinner from 7 euros. At each university has its office Istituto per il diritto alla Studio Universitario (ISU) working to protect student rights, the granting of scholarships and legal consultation. You can get information on how to cope in overcoming administrative problems. Students to 26 years of age are entitled to discounts on tickets for public transport and rail. Associated in the organization Centro Turistico Studentesco (CTS, www.cts.it) can benefit from discounts on air travel. Some museums, cinemas and clubs have discount tickets for students.
HOW MUCH FOR STUDIES?
Public universities in Italy charge a tuition from students. It is definitely lower than the fees at private universities and is subject to economic assessments and the student. Each school has a scholarship fund.
* Universita Cattolica, Catholic university located in several academic centers: medicine from 2.2 thousand. to 5 thousand. euro, economics, mathematics, physics from 1.5 to 4.4 thousand. euro; law, languages, political science from 1.3 to 4.2 thousand. euro.
* Bocconi in Milan: from 3.7 thousand. to 8.5 thousand. euro.
* Ca’Foscari Universita di Venezia, a state university in Venice, from 169 to a thousand. euro.
* Universita degli Studi di Roma, a state university in Rome: from 473 to 832 euros.
* Universita degli Studi di Firenze, Florence State University: from 527 to 1.3 thousand. euro.
Universita per Stranieri * di Siena, the University for Foreigners of Siena: 723 euros.
* Istituto Europeo di Design, a private design school based in Milan, Rome and Turin: learning the semester or course of several years of fashion, design, visual arts and communication costs between two thousand. euro.
WHERE TO LEARN ITALIAN IN ITALY
Language courses for foreigners, almost all leading academic centers. In Perugia (www.unistrapg.it), and Siena (www.unistrasi.it) are in universities for foreigners prepared to teach foreign students in different directions.
About the Organization
General Wladyslaw Anders and 2nd Polish Corps in the region Marche, Italy, 1944-1946.
For this special exhibition at the Polish Museum in Chicago, members and supporters came to the Organization of Polish-Italian-American from Chicago and Illinois. Also present were Consul General of the Polish and Italian with their partners, politicians, przedstwiciele ethnic backgrounds and invited guests.
Although 200 years have passed since the establishment of national anthem, which from that day became the Polish national anthem, the cultural-historical relationships are still alive in Polish and Italian communities in each geographical szerkoĹci.
Imported from Italy exhibition, General Wladyslaw Anders and 2nd Polish Corps in the region Marche, Italy, from 1944 to 1946 was composed of previously unpublished photographs from the archives of the Polish Institute and Museum. General Sikorski in London. Selection of historical photos and exponatĂłw took care of the Marche region Beata przedstawicielewĹoskiego Jackiwicz-Oresti and Giuseppe Campana. In its comprehensive form of exhibition orginalne visited Poland, Italy and Britain. Due to limited number exponatĂłw transport and selected photos to the Chicago presentation. The organizers of the exhibition in Chicago, showing the battle the 2nd Polish Corps in Italy at the front adraiatyckim were: Polish Museum of America, Mrs. Anna Dunajewska, director of the Polish School. Czeslaw Milosz in Schaumburg
(Illinois) and the Polish Consulate in Chicago.At the opening of the exhibition was attended by living in Chicago and Illinois veterans of World War II, for which the elements of Polish history are still vital in their lives. The memory of Polish soldiers also live in the Marche region. Not only because the Polish wartime cemetery in Loretto rest died in the fighting for the freedom of Italian and Polish. Locals remember the time just after the war, when the two housing units created a series of allowing return to normal life. The resulting schools, restaurants, theater, radio station, publishing press releases and research. Substitute normality inspiring strengthened relations with Italy. And that was the exhibition. Museum of additionally prepared tamatycznÄ Exposition of General Wladyslaw Anders and his army. Rich collection of decorations and medals, has been enriched by the gift of the State of Edith and Thomas Pelc, who specifically for the opportunity to inaugurate the exhibition brought a cross given to their grandfather for fighting at Monte Casino. This exhibition attracted Polish and Italian community living in Chicago and realized the size of new generations of dedication and heroism of Polish soldiers during World War II.
Develop and pictures: Bozena Jankowska, Marina WÄ sowski-Graczyk, Zenon Golba, Ross Pontarelli, Tadeusz GubaĹa, Gino Bartucci.
Immigration activists ready to „raid” on Washington.
The current campaign will accompany the other attempts to mobilize existing immigration podzczas when, according to organizers, the chances of adopting the new regulations of the federal laws of the increase.
On Saturday, held a demonstration in downtown Chicago at the „Federal Plaza” on the first anniversary of several marches in 2006, which amounted to immigration issues to the forefront for many Chicagowian.
„It is important to work together,” said Salgado, who helped organize last year’s marches. „The obvious next step is to participate in current attempts to influence the vote of our congressional delegation.”
According to organizers, the entire effort will consist of a telephone campaign and subsequent three-day trips to Washington in the coming weeks, when he visits Washington participants will present 21 representatives of Illinois in the American Congress a list of immigration reform proposals that would like to see were approved and put into practice.
A similar trip to Springfield is scheduled for late March.
Billy Lawless, president of the organization „Celts for Immigration Reform,” said that the campaign will be partly focused on the contribution economicznym immigrants in cities such as Chicago. Now that the debate about immigrants again takes on the larger size, after it came to nothing in Congress last year, a certain urgency characterizes our movement, he added Lawless.
„This will be our year” on a reform, said Lawless. „But we have here is a fight.”
Development: Agnieszka Zenon Golba and Malick
Communications of the Polish-Italian
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